英语硕士论文范文精选3篇

来源: www.sblunwen.com 作者:lgg 发布时间:2017-10-20 论文字数:38956字
论文编号: sb2017101020462517035 论文语言:中文 论文类型:硕士毕业论文
本文是英语论文,本文介绍了小学英语档案袋评价的个案研究、期望违背理论下言语交际有效性的研究、基于两套高中英语教材中言语行为的研究三篇精选论文。

英语硕士论文范文精选篇一:小学英语档案袋评价的个案研究

 
第一章 绪论
 
1.1 研究背景
随着新课程改革的推进,学生评价也逐渐成为APP自助领取彩金8-18界炙手可热的问题,引起了众多专家学者的关注和重视。“从学生角度来说,学生评价直接影响学生能否健康全面发展;从学校角度来说,学生评价直接决定学校APP自助领取彩金8-18教学质量;从社会角度来说,学生评价直接决定公民的整体素质(李玉芳,2014)”。长期以来,传统的纸笔测试不能很好的发挥APP自助领取彩金8-18评价的功能,只以分数的高低简单的评判学生,以这种方式只能表现出评价的选拔功能,阻碍了APP自助领取彩金8-18评价对学生发展的促进和激励功能。为了改变传统评价观念,新课程改革将学生评价改革作为一个重要内容了提出来,以“为了每一位学生的发展” 为核心理念的评价理念,倡导的是过程与结果相结合的学生评价。2001 年国务院颁布实施了《国家基础APP自助领取彩金8-18课程改革纲要》(试行),文件提出“要求评价不仅关注学生的学业成绩,而且要发现和发展学生多方面的潜能,了解学生发展的需求,帮助学生认识自我,建立自信,发挥评价的APP自助领取彩金8-18功能,促进学生在原有水平上的发展。”为了落实APP自助领取彩金8-18评价改革,APP自助领取彩金8-18部在 2002 年下发的《关于积极推进中小学评价与考试制度改革的通知》中,明确提出学校和教师要“建立每一个学生的成长记录袋,并指出高中录取标准除考试成绩以外,可试行参考学生成长记录袋等其他资料,综合评价进行录取”(李玉芳,2014)。这一政策的颁布,对中小学APP自助领取彩金8-18阶段尤其是小学阶段APP自助领取彩金8-18评价体系带来了很大的影响,许多学校根据政策要求建立了自己的校本档案袋评价体系,也取得了一定的评价成果。由此可以看出,档案袋评价方式的提出不仅局限于理念上,而且必须付出与实践。档案袋评价作为一种新的评价方式与新一轮的基础APP自助领取彩金8-18课程改革相匹配已经备受关注,成长记录袋或档案袋评价方式已经成为目前较受欢迎的评价方式之一。笔者通过阅读大量文献资料发现,对档案袋评价方式的研究较为丰富,一方面是理论的研究,主要集中在档案袋评价的定义、种类、功能和特点;另一方面集中在应用的研究,档案袋已经大范围的应用于中小学各科课程的教学中。但是,无论是理论研究还是应用研究,仍然存在许多问题和缺陷,因此对于如何在小学课程中有效地开展学生档案袋评价,如何更的好利用档案袋评价方式反馈学生学习能力的发展,这是值得深入分析和探讨的问题,也是摆在广大一线中小学教师面前亟待解决的问题。
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1.2 研究意义
新课程改革在对学生评价方面提出多元的综合评价模式,越来越重视对学生的综合评价。小学学习档案袋的建立与应用,构建多元化学生评价体系,帮助了学校、教师和家长更好的了解学生,也促进了学生的全面发展。第一,从评价方式来看,档案袋评价是进行学生评价的一种新工具,在全面推进素质APP自助领取彩金8-18和新课改的背景下,中小学学业评价与考试制度的改革也得到了社会各界的广泛重视,提出在对学生评价时,不仅要重视结果,更要重视学生发展变化的过程,在评价过程中把形成性评价与终结性评价结合起来。档案袋评价方式的应用可以克服传统以“考试为主,分数至上”的评价方式。档案袋评价方式促进了学生评价方法的多元化,不仅有利于顺应学生评价的改革趋势,也有利于促进小学英语教学质量的提升。第二,从教师角度来看,目前我国小学英语教学大多采用传统教学评价模式,更多地强调以教师为评价主体,评价手段较为单一。教师的教学目的更多关注考试结果,以分数为主要的评价标准,对学生的综合发展重视不够。而档案袋评价方式为教师提供了学生学习和发展更全面、更重要的信息,每个学生的档案袋都承载了学生自己的成长信息,能充分体现学生的个体差异,使教师能为学生提供符合其特点和发展水平的教学和指导,真正做到因材施教,更有利于教师对学生学习效果进行准确的判断。同时,使教学与评价相结合,使教学目标与学生发展保持一致,提高了评价的效度,有利于教师有效的实现APP自助领取彩金8-18教学目标。
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第二章 文献综述
 
2.1 理论基础
我国新一轮的课程改革促进了APP自助领取彩金8-18评价的变革,对APP自助领取彩金8-18评价提出新的要求。与传统评价相比,学生评价的改革应强调过程性和真实性,倡导全面评价和综合评价。档案袋评价这种质性评价工具符合新评价的要求,体现了新评价要求的过程性和多元性。并且这种质性评价方式以多元智力理论和构建主义学习理论为理论基础。1983 年美国哈佛大学APP自助领取彩金8-18研究院心理发展学家加德纳提出多元智能理论,他认为“每个人都拥有八种主要智能:语言智能、逻辑一数理智能、空间智能、运动智能、音乐智能、人际交往智能、内省智能、自然观察智能。”这八种智力在上人身上有不同的组合和排序,因此每个人的智力都有独特的表现方式和特点(郑晋, 2007)。在不同的活动和学习中,学生呈现出独特的智力结构,所以,很难找到适用于任何人的统一评价标准来评价一个人的聪明程度和智力水平的高低。
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2.2 核心概念界定
档案袋是根据英文单词 portfolio 翻译而成的,也有学者将档案袋翻译为公文包、文件夹等。最初使用档案袋的是一些画家、设计师和摄影爱好者,他们把自己认为很具有代表性的绘画作品或者摄影作品汇集起来,放进档案袋中进行保存,在一定的时期将这些汇集起的作品展示出来(江彬,邱立中,2003)。后期,档案袋被引入APP自助领取彩金8-18中,主要用于收集学生自己认为能够证明自己的学习进步、创新精神和知识技能的成果。“档案袋可以包括计划、中间过程的草稿、最终的成果、以及教师的评价、相关的资料等,以此来评价学生学习和进步的状况(裔珊珊,2013)”。档案袋可以说是记录了学生在某一时期一系列的成长片段,是评价学生进步过程、努力程度、反思能力及其最终发展水平的理想方式。“用档案袋收集学生作品的目的不只是想展示学生的成就与进步,也是想显示出学生的学习和发展水平”(白宇坤,2008)。对于档案袋的概念及内涵,国内外不同的专家学者也有不同的表述。国外学者中具有代表性的定义有 Valencia & Calfee(1998)提出来的,他们认为“学生的档案袋就像一种强有力的工具,可以提高教师的教学和评价,也可以系统的帮助教师和学生收集材料来测试学生在学习知识、技能、态度等方面的发展,为教师提供真实的评价。”Farr & Tone(1994)提出,“档案袋的目的是收集学生的作品,并为学生在过去一段时间内所取得的成就和成长提供证据。”Arter & Spanel(1992)认为:“学生档案袋是有目的、有选择的收集学生的作品,从这些收集的资料和作品中可以看出学生在一定的时间或领域中所付出的努力程度、进步情况和在某一领域中取得的成就。”Hansen(1992)对档案袋做出如下定义:“档案袋就是有关学生学习情况的、有目的地汇集起来的东西,它表现了学生在较长期的时间内课程的一个或多个领域中所做出的全部努力、进步及学业成就。” 美国西北评价联合会(NorthwestEvaluation Association)的APP自助领取彩金8-18工作者对档案袋所下的定义是档案袋是对学生作业的一种有目的的搜集,这些作品要能够展示学生在一个或多个领域中付出的努力、取得的进步或成就。收集过程必须包括学生在内容选择、挑选准则的确定等方面的积极参与,档案袋中还要包括判断价值高低的准则和学生自我反思的证据 (汪向征,2005)。
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第三章 研究设计与方法.......19
3.1 研究问题........19
3.2 研究方法.......19
3.3 研究设计........20
3.3.1 研究样本的选择.......... 20
3.3.2 研究工具的使用.......... 20
3.3.3 数据收集与整理.......... 21
第四章 研究结果与讨论.........25
4.1 结果分析与讨论...........25
4.2 研究结论.......50
第五章 英语档案袋评价方式的改进策略.....55
5.1 加强档案袋评价的理论学习和培训........... 55
5.2 端正档案袋评价的态度,整体提升评价效率.......... 56
5.3 优化档案袋评价的内容,提供可选择的任务.......... 56
5.4 改变档案袋交流方式,加强与家长沟通.......... 57
5.5 增加专门人员,建立统一管理制度.......... 57
 
第五章 英语档案袋评价方式的改进策略
 
5.1 加强档案袋评价的理论学习和培训
从档案袋评价方法的提出至今,我国专家学者对这一评价方式的研究还处于初级阶段,在理论和实践方面都还需要做更多的探索。让教师在理论的指导下进行实践的探索,在实践的过程的过程中进行经验的总结和反思。教师虽然对档案袋的定义、类型、内容、及作用有了一定的了解,但是还应该促进教师对如何确定档案袋评价标准、如何帮助学生进行自我评价和自我反思等问题进行理论上的探究。教师应该从实际出发,从了解学生、了解教学目标、课程目标、教学方法出发,研究如何与档案袋评价完美的相结合,达到最好的评价效果。加强教师相关知识的学习,并对具体的实际操作提供相关指导,不仅促进评价观念的改变,也促进实践的提升。学校要重视并加强教师个人专业理论知识的学习,定期举行培训活动,对理论知识和实践技巧及时更新,指导教师举行经验交流活动。只有教师不断的学习与提高,才能灵活的应用档案袋评价,在评价活动才能真正发挥作用,提高评价的效率。档案袋评价是学校、学生和家长共同参与,共同评价的一种评价手段,为家长提供了随时了解学生英语学习过程的机会,如学生在学生英语中的优势与弱势、兴趣与特长等。为了档案袋评价的有效实施,家长应该积极参与到英语档案袋评价中。学校要对家长开展英语档案袋评价的相关培训,让家长对档案袋评价的基础知识有一定的了解,掌握评价的技巧,认识到实施英语档案袋评价对于学生的意义和重要性。家长应该了解英语档案袋评价的特点及功能,并能清楚的意识到自己在档案袋评价中所处的地位和起到的作用。教师应该引导家长改变传统的评价观念,建立和谐的交流空间。积极引导家长参与到学生英语档案袋的制作过程中,帮助孩子的过程也是了解孩子的过程,不仅可以看到孩子在学习过程中的不足,也可以看到孩子身上的优势,更能体会到孩子在学习过程中的情感态度。家长要积极合理的评价学生,并为学生以后的发展提出发展方向。家长在学习档案袋评价方式理论知识的同时,更应该参与英语档案袋的制作过程中,及时了解孩子在学校的情况,学会与孩子沟通,了解孩子的真实内心。家长应该仔细阅读孩子的作品,并对孩子的个性作品进行必要的点评。可以是对孩子作品的肯定与赞扬,也可以对作品的不足之处提出改进意见,也可以是对一段与孩子一段时间内学习与进步的评价等,通过家长的评价与建议,指出后期学生发展的方向与目标,肯定孩子取得的成就与进步,以增强孩子的自信心,增强孩子学习英语的兴趣。
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结束语
 
档案袋评价作为一种过程性评价方式,通过收集学生一段时间内的学习资料,让教师、学、家长分别对学习效果进行评价与反思,是一种结合学习过程与结果的综合性评价方式,在评价过程中,注重对学生的主观能动性学习和自我反思的能力的培养,更加关注学生的全面发展和学生的个体差异。随着新课改的推进,越来越多的APP自助领取彩金8-18界学者和教师们都关注着档案袋评价这一话题。本研究在国内外专家学者的研究基础上,对西安 A 学校附属小学实施档案袋评价进行了个案研究。通过对教师、学生和家长三位评价主体的调查和研究,对西安A 学校附属小学实施英语档案袋评价的现状有了基本的了解,也在研究中发现了一些问题,根据不同的实施主体和相应的问题,提出了改进策略。笔者对西安 A 学校附属小学实施英语档案袋评价的现状进行了调查,而基于本研究中可能的创新主要有以下两点: 第一、根据文献综述可以看出,已有的学生档案袋评价研究大多是档案袋评价的概念、种类等相关理论研究,没有涉及到具体的分科研究,即使是学科的研究,也以档案袋的实验研究居多。而本研究是深入的调查研究,并以实例具体到小学阶段学生英语档案袋评价的现状研究,这是本文的第一个创新点。第二、本研究是个案研究,结合问卷调查、访谈法和个案分析等方法,对小学英语档案袋评价方式的实施进行了深入调查,从教师、学生和家长三个评价主体出发,分别探讨了三个评价主体对档案袋评价的适应性,并发现实施过程中存在的问题,对问题进行了深入的分析。尽管笔者对西安 A 学校附属小学实施英语档案袋评价现状进行了一定探讨,发现了存在的一些问题,提出了相应的策略。但本研究也存在一些不足,第一,由于档案袋评价并没有在小学阶段广泛实施,所以本研究只是一个案研究,并没有足够的代表性。第二,本研究的样本学校只用了英语档案袋评。因此,研究提出的问题和策略只针对英语档案袋的实施。第三,对本研究没有档案袋评价的推广性进行评估,需要进一步研究。
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参考文献(略)
 

英语硕士论文范文精选篇二:期望违背理论下言语交际有效性的研究

 
Chapter 1 Introduction
 
1.1 Background of the research
Communication is very important in our daily life. People cannot live withoutcommunication, thus communication is inevitable and necessary. Each person is fromdifferent culture, even the twins may be influenced differently by their parents. Theprocess of communication is transmitting and exchanging information among theinvolved people. Many factors can affect our communications, such as stereotypes,prejudices, uncertainties or even the pronunciations.In our life, we may contact with people from any place or culture in this or thatmanner. Under such a condition, effective communication turns out to be very importantand necessary. Many scholars and language learners have realized that only possessingthe knowledge of foreign language is not enough and cannot achieve the aim ofintercultural communication.In the procedure of communicating, people give the meaning to the informationwhich is transmitted by others and act accordingly. By this way, communicative resultcan be produced. This kind of result may be effective or ineffective. The so-calledeffective communication means that people successfully achieve the expectedcommunication without misunderstandings.The process of communication is one that needs two parts to be involved. Thisinteractive procedure not only relates to the information itself and the understanding ofinformation, but also many perspectives such as intercultural symbols, psychologicalcognition or emotions. These aspects may promote or hinder the proper understanding ofinformation. The two communicating parties continuously send and receive information.
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1.2 Significance of the research
The dissertation analyzes how the theory of expectancy violation influencescommunication effectiveness. Only we know when and how the violation occurs can weimprove our ability of communication effectiveness. This research can help peopleunderstand more about the theory. The theory is an important one in the field ofintercultural communication. This dissertation can expand the researches on the theory tosome degree and apply it to the practical use. On the other hand, since many scholarshave studied the intercultural communication effectiveness from other views, thisdissertation will research it from the new view of expectancy violations theory, and thusprobably can provide reference to later researchers on this theory. This research selectseleven cases of the relation between doctors and patients to analyze how their languageand behaviors influence communication effectiveness.
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Chapter 2 Literature Review
 
This chapter serves as literature review to thoroughly discuss the studies which isrelated to the present research subject. The first two sections will provide the readers anoverview of the studies on communication effectiveness both at home and abroad. Thethird section of this chapter is the summary of the study.
 
2.1 Researches of effectiveness of intercultural communicationfrom abroad
Intercultural communication was first appeared in America. America is animmigrated country. Besides the native Indians, many people were all from othercontinents or regions, including Europe, Africa or Asia. They shared different culturaltraditions and customs, so it was inevitable for them to have problems whencommunicating with each other. American people communicate frequently with peoplefrom other countries in the world, every year many government officials, technologicalengineers and scholars may fly to other countries and regions. For this reason, thesepeople would have all kinds of contact with the native people. For most of the overseasstudents and immigrants, the training of intercultural communication plays a veryimportant role.Many scholars have recognized The Silent Language written by Edward Hall,published in 1959 as the foundation of intercultural communication. Hall is aanthropologist and paid much attention to the relations between culture andcommunication. In The Silent Language, Hall made a thorough discussion about therelation among time, space and communication. He found that there is an obviousdifference when people from different cultural backgrounds use time and space toexpress their ideas. In this book, Hall put forward some suggestions on how to researchculture from a more thorough and scientific way. Later, he published some other booksabout intercultural communication and had a very big influence on other researches in this field.
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2.2 Researches of effectiveness of intercultural communication athome
There is only a short period of history of communication effectiveness in China.Nearly from the beginning of 1980s, some scholars had noticed interculturalcommunication. However at first, modern language teaching and the relation betweenculture and language are the top priorities. It has been a historic fact that communicationeffectiveness exists among different cultural groups. Because of the appearance ofmodern science technology, the communication network and birth of global subjectfeatured as comprehensive, a worldwide communication and broadcasting are on the way.People began to realize that they are facing with an all-new international life, which isthe product of all kinds of intertwined cultures from the perspective of psychology,sociology and linguistics.It is inevitable to escape the reality that cooperation and communication amongdifferent cultures are complicated. However, the shrinkage of world space cannot makethe mental distance among people disappear. Though people share the same language, itis still useless, for language is only one of the codes that people use to communicate indaily life. The low effectiveness of communication, the misunderstanding among peopleand other communicative barriers may lead to endless conflicts or even disasters. It isalways difficult for people from different cultural background to communicate and getalong with. There were nearly many articles about cultural differences in 1980s. On onehand, people have much interest on the intercultural communication, on the other hand,the expansion of communication teaching in the foreign language teaching made peoplerealize that when learning foreign language, it is necessary to grasp the knowledge ofculture. One cannot learn foreign language well if only pay attention to the form oflanguage, while not the inner knowledge of it.
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Chapter 3 Research Design.......21
3.1 Theoretical framework of the research...........21
3.2 Research questions......... 26
3.3 Research Method............27
Chapter 4 Analysis Discussion..........32
4.1 Characteristics to affect communication effectiveness under.......32
4.2 Communication clashes and influences on the communication effectiveness.......45
4.2.1 Conflicts of communication ineffectiveness........ 45
4.2.2 Obstacles occurred during the communication............ 50
4.3 Functions and suggestions of communication effectiveness under the theory.......54
Chapter 5 Conclusion........61
5.1 Major findings of the research........61
5.2 Limitations and some suggestions for future research........... 63
 
Chapter 4 Analysis Discussion
 
This is the main body of this dissertation, chapter 4 chooses 11 cases betweendoctors and patients to explore and analyze how expectancy violation theory affectscommunication effectiveness. After the analysis, the author provides some suggestions toimprove effectiveness of intercultural communication between doctors and patients andother groups.
 
4.1 Characteristics to affect communication effectiveness under theexpectancy violation theory
In the hospital, 60 cases have been recorded, after sorting these data, 11 cases areeffective and can be analyzed under this theory. In the following part, these cases shouldbe stated in detail. As the main body of this dissertation, this part will explore how theeffectiveness of intercultural communication is affected by the theory of expectancyviolation. After the analysis, the author gives some suggestions to improve theeffectiveness of intercultural communication. Recent years, all kinds of medical conflictsespecially the extreme medical conflicts in China occur a lot, which makes therelationship between doctors and patients become the focus of people’s view.Generally speaking, the relation between doctors and patients is not only a specialcommunication relationship, but also a kind of special group and social relation. Fromthe broad view, the relation between doctors and patients refers to the medical workersincluding doctors, nurses or people who manage the hospital. The patients refer to thepeople who is sick or the family members of the patients. Communication is important inthe field of medicine. Many researchers have found that the patients who possess somegood communication characteristics may gain the better consideration and healthyoutcomes. Those patients who are good at asking questions and expressing themselves ordiscussing their healthy experience can gain more information, support and guarantee.Some related researches from abroad, communication and expectation are usuallyconnected to be researched. In a same society, based on some similar social norms andcultural norms, people have the same expectation standard on a certain group. When thegroup violate the expectation of practical behaviors, if the behavior is positive, then it ispopular to people. If the behavior is negative, then it may have negative evaluation.
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Conclusion
 
Studies on intercultural communication effectiveness have achieved huge progressboth at home and abroad. Those studies provide useful information for the further studyin this field, and inspire scholars all over the world to continue the study of interculturalcommunication effectiveness from new perspectives. On the basis of those studies andfindings, this dissertation discussed how the theory of expectancy violation influencesthe intercultural communication effectiveness.This dissertation examines how the violation is produced and then influences theeffectiveness of intercultural communication by analyzing every case from culturalperspective. What’s more, this dissertation also points out that the direct cause of theineffective communication is the violation of expectation. The purpose of thisdissertation is to find out what cause communicators from different cultures tomisunderstand each other, and how communicators should do to prevent thosemisunderstandings, therefore they are able to communicate with effectiveness. In thischapter, the author summarizes the whole research and answers the previous researchquestions. Limitations of the research and suggestions for future study are presented hereas well.
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Reference documents (omitted) 
 

英语硕士论文范文精选篇三:基于两套高中英语教材中言语行为的研究

 
Chapter One Introduction
 
1.1 Background of the Study
Many English as a second language (ESL) and English as a foreign language (EFL)researchers believe that successful language learning involves the acquisition of the ability tospeak both accurately and appropriately (Hymes, 1972; Bachman, 1990; Canale & Swan,1980; Leech, 1983; Thomas, 1983; Wilkins, 1976). Communicative competence was firstlyused by Hymes (1972) to describe what a language speaker needs to know so as to achieveeffective communication and be communicatively competent. Later Bachman (1990) coinedthe term, communicative language ability, to better describe language speakers’ ability tospeak both accurately and appropriately. Communicative language teaching (CLT) whichencompasses communicative competence and communicative language ability as its coreelement, has received much attention and warm welcome from educators and English teacherssince its introduction into China and the implementation of English Curriculum Standards forSenior High Schools (2003). However, despite the great passions that students possess forlearning English and the prolonged school years they devote to the learning of English, mostof them are not able to conduct effective and successful communication with native Englishspeakers (He & Zhang, 2003). The main reason for this problem is that Chinese Englishteachers have been putting great emphasis on the accuracy of language by teaching languageforms and structures (Xia, 2003), especially grammar, vocabulary, and pronunciation insteadof the teaching and presentation of appropriate language use in real life communication, i.e.,the pragmatic knowledge. In order to be able to speak both accurately and appropriately,students need to improve their pragmatic knowledge and competence, one of the corecomponents of communicative language ability. Pragmatics studies language within context,and the highlight of it is speech acts (Vellenga, 2004), which reflect the social values andcultures related to real life language use.
..........
 
1.2 Purpose of the Study
As is said above, Chinese students often encounter pragmatic failure and communicationbreakdown when communicating with native English speakers. Textbooks provide most ofthe language input for language learners in Chinese context; therefore, it is of great necessityfor us to examine whether the English textbooks have provided enough and effective inputfor students in terms of speech acts as well as the necessary pragmatic knowledge, so as todevelop their communicative competence. However, the studies in this regard have beenconducted only on a small scale, and most of them lack clear and scientific researchinstruments in terms of the classification of speech acts, which will be reviewed in thefollowing chapter.This study is conducted to examine the presentation of speech acts in two series of highschool English textbooks published by People’s Educational Press (PEP) and Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press (FLTRP). These two series of textbooks are of highquality and widely used in Shenzhen as well as many other places in China. All the parts inthe textbooks involving the teaching of the knowledge of speech acts are scrutinized andanalyzed from the following two aspects: 1) the quantity, classification and distributionfeatures of speech acts; 2) a detailed and in-depth investigation of the speech act of“suggestion”: the realization strategies of “suggestion”, and the modification devices of“suggestion”.The author tries to provide both a macro and a micro look into the presentation of speechacts, in order to find out the strengths and weaknesses in terms of the teaching of pragmaticknowledge between these two series of textbooks, and to see weather these textbooks arehelpful in developing students’ communicative competence.
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Chapter Two Literature Review
 
2.1 Studies on the Evaluation of Textbooks
Vellenga (2004) thinks that textbooks are the core element of education syllabus and theprimary source of input for language learners. Textbook evaluation is of great importance andTomlinson (1996) claims that textbook evaluation helps us understand how a textbookperforms its role, and contributes to the improvement of teaching practice.Studies on the evaluation of English textbooks began in the 1960s. Several studies fromabroad have been influential, and they will be reviewed as follows. Seaton (1982) lists morethan 10 aspects of textbook evaluation, which are too complex to put into practice and someof the aspects are out of date. Van Elsetal (1984) thinks that there are four aspects of textbookevaluation: 1) to evaluate a textbook according to the teaching syllabus; 2) to get opinionsfrom the language teachers on the textbooks through questionnaire or interview; 3) to makecomparison among textbooks; 4) to conduct experimental researches on the effects oftextbooks. Hutchinson & Waters (1987) thinks that evaluation of textbooks is to see to whatextent a textbook has met the set standards. Candlin & Breen (1987) incorporates theevaluation of students’ learning methods, skill development and practice in classroom into theevaluation of textbooks. N. Grant (1987) thinks that textbooks should meet three aspects ofrequirements: curriculum standards, language learners and language teachers. He alsoproposes the “three stages” of textbook evaluation: 1) initial evaluation, to what extent atextbook fulfills the set criteria in terms of theories; 2) detailed evaluation, to what extent atextbook meet the set standards in terms of teaching practice; 3) in-use evaluation, howtextbooks are used successfully in classroom activities. Regards to whether a textbook issuitable for language learners or not, Grant claims that textbooks should incorporate linguisticknowledge and comprehensive skills simultaneously, and pay close attention to thecoordinated development of linguistic skills, and providing sufficient communicative activities for students. Cunningsworth (1995) puts forwards the in-depth evaluation in hisbook Choosing Your Coursebook, and lists eight evaluation items: aims; approaches;language content; methodology; design and organization; topics; teachers’ books and otherpractical considerations. Ellis (1997) thinks that textbook evaluation should be done from theperspective of students, and he makes a comprehensive list of criteria. However, Ellis ignoresthe language teachers’ opinions and needs.
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2.2 Studies on the Pragmatic Evaluation of Textbook
Most of the studies regarding the evaluation of textbooks focus on the difficulty, styles,contents of textbooks and teaching methods (He & Zhou, 1997; Hu etal, 1995; Wang, 2001;Xia, 2001; Zhou, 1998). Studies regarding the evaluation of textbooks from the perspective ofpragmatics are of small quantity (He, 2011).Scotton & Bernsten (1988) explore the presentation of “giving direction” in textbooksand find out that natural sequences used in everyday conversations are not incorporated intextbooks, which means that conversations in textbooks fail to reflect the real use of language.Bardovi-Harlig (1991) investigates 20 EFL textbooks about the closings in conversations, andfinds out that only 12 textbooks provide complete examples of closings in conversations. Inhis study, Bardvoi (1991) also states that the textbooks fail to provide authentic and naturalexample of conversations for language learners. Boxer & Pickering (1995) investigate thepresentation of speech act of “complaint” in several textbooks, and find out that only directcomplaints are presented in textbooks while indirect complaints are missing. Grant & Starks(2001) do a similar study to Bardovi’s (1991). They compare closings in textbooks with theclosings in soap operas and find that closings in textbooks are not as authentic as those in soapoperas. Vellenga (2004) conducts an important study of 8 textbooks, including 4 EFLtextbooks and 4 ESL textbooks, on the presentation of pragmatic knowledge.
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Chapter Three Theoretical Framework...... 11
3.1 CLT and Pragmatic Competence...........11
3.2 Pragmatic Failure and the Development of Pragmatic Competence.........13
3.3 Speech Acts Theory..........16
3.4 The Speech Act of “Suggestion”.....19
Chapter Four Methodology.......... 24
4.1 Research Questions..........24
4.2 Textbooks Selected...........24
4.3 Research Instruments......30
4.4 Data Collection and Data Analysis.........31
Chapter Five Results and Discussion...........35
5.1 The Presentation of Speech Acts in Selected Textbooks...... 35
5.2 The Presentation of “Suggestion” in Selected Textbooks............ 48
 
Chapter Five Results and Discussion
 
In this chapter, the research results of this study will be presented. The research questions ofthis study are:1) What are the frequencies, categories, and the distribution features of speech acts in thetwo series of textbooks?The present study aims to investigate the presentation of speech acts in the selectedtextbooks, and to seek answers from a macro perspective.2) How are the speech act of suggestion presented in the two series of textbooks and howare they different?Here the present study aims to find out the presentation of the knowledge of speech actfrom the micro perspective. Specifically the realization strategies and modification devices ofsuggestions are investigated.Answers to the two questions will be presented in this chapter.
 
5.1 The Presentation of Speech Acts in Selected Textbooks
As is shown in the above table, the total number of frequencies of speech acts in PEPtextbooks (183 frequencies, 67%) is more than twice of those in FLTRP textbooks (90frequencies, 33%). It is obvious that PEP textbooks pay much more attention to thepresentation of pragmatic knowledge than the FLTRP textbooks. As is discussed above, AlanCunningsworth (2002) thinks that in EFL classrooms, textbooks play a key role in providingthe primary (perhaps only) form of language input for language learners, which is true inChinese educational context. Many scholars (Krashen, 1985; Swain, 1985, 1995; Ellis, 2007;Van Patten, 2004) think that adequate language input is of great importance and the premise ofthe improvement of students’ language competence. Language learning processes begin withinput (Krashen, 1985), in other words, if students are to learn the language and developlanguage ability, they must have met adequate language input first. Therefore, there should beenough amount of language examples and presentation in textbooks. In this sense, PEPtextbooks do a better job in enhancing students’ pragmatic competence than FLTRPtextbooks.
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Conclusion
 
In this chapter, the answers to the research questions will be summed up, educationalimplications will be discussed and finally, some limitations of this study will be pointed out.The two research questions of this study are:1) What are the frequencies, categories, and the distribution features of the speech acts inthe two series of textbooks?2) How are the speech act of suggestion presented in the two series of textbooks and howare they different?For the first question, PEP textbooks do a better job than FLTRP textbooks in terms ofboth the quantity and categories of the speech acts. The number of speech acts in PEPtextbooks is twice of that in FLTRP textbooks; and the categories of speech acts presented inPEP textbooks are also more than those presented in FLTRP textbooks. Adequate input aswell as the variety of the language in the textbooks, is of great importance for students toimprove their communicative competence, therefore in terms of the presentation of speechacts and the improvement of students’ pragmatic ability, PEP textbooks is a better choice thanFLTRP textbooks. As for the distribution features, there is no distinct feature of the selectedtextbooks, and as is discussed above, the correlation between the distribution of speech actsand students’ pragmatic ability needs further study.
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Reference documents (omitted) 

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