英语硕士论文范文精选十篇

来源: www.sblunwen.com 作者:lgg 发布时间:2018-07-20 论文字数:38455字
论文编号: sb2018071721185922103 论文语言:English 论文类型:硕士毕业论文
本文是一篇英语论文,英语以它巨大的词汇量而著称,很容易引入专业术语和输入新词到日常使用中。另外,俚语也为旧词换上了新的含义。这种灵活性非常明显,通常需要正确区分正式的用法
本文是一篇英语论文,英语以它巨大的词汇量而著称,很容易引入专业术语和输入新词到日常使用中。另外,俚语也为旧词换上了新的含义。这种灵活性非常明显,通常需要正确区分正式的用法和日常一般用法;英美的初等APP自助领取彩金8-18教师一般会提醒学生那些日常广泛使用但在正式场合中并不正确的字汇。(以上内容来自百度百科)今天为大家推荐一篇英语论文,供大家参考。

 

英语硕士论文范文精选篇一

 
Chapter One Introduction
 
1.1Background of the Study
语言是一种工具,来表达自己的思想和文化的载体。英语的重要性不能被过分强调。总之,有说英语的172个国家和地区,其中73个国家以英语为官方语言,英语为母语的六个国家举行。如今,在用户数量方面,英语被放置第二,仅次于中国。到现在为止,已经成为英语语言最词汇和最大的使用范围。这些数字背后隐藏了英语的重要性。这是在联合国的五种官方语言之一,在国际学术界,企业界的工作语言。此外,它一直是一个辅助领域的科学,技术,金融,旅游,APP自助领取彩金8-18,语言亏缺的etc.As在世界上最开放的语言,英语有,难免或多或少吸收几乎每个地方的语言文化,无论它是使用。非英语为母语的英语的使用是一个过程,文化的碰撞。因此,世界英语,或英语已经进入不同的品种,如尼日利亚英语,马来西亚英语,新加坡英语,印度英语,使用英语时,在这些国家的文化碰撞所形成的。随着时代的发展,为世界验证自助领取彩金之间的进一步沟通不同的国家,英语,这些新品种已提高每一个现在,然后,逐渐被世界所接受,并给予其应有的重要性。
中国英语是永远不能被忽略的。它是英语为母语的在中国的本地化,英语的一个强有力的补充和发展,以及一个有用的工具,为世界更好地了解中国的产品。已经有激烈的争论,自从中国英语首次提出。从许多学者已经听到不同的声音。一些学者,而另一些则反对。存在了休息,保持中立的态度。进入二十一世纪后,其存在的争论是不激烈,因为几年前,它是客观存在的东西不用谈。到现在为止,在这一领域的主要发展趋势已转向可以采取什么优势,通过研究中国英语,并把它付诸实践。
Language is a tool to express one’s ideas and a carrier of cultures. Theimportance of English can never be over emphasized. All together, there are 172countries and regions speaking English, among which 73 countries take English astheir official language, and six countries hold English as mother tongue. Nowadays,in terms of the number of users, English is placed second, next only to Chinese.Until now, English has become a language with the most vocabulary and the largestusage scope.Behind these numbers hides the importance of English. It is one of the fiveofficial languages in the United Nations, a working language in internationalacademic and business communities. Besides, it has been an auxiliary language inthe fields of science, technology, finance, tourism, education, etc.As the most open language in the world, English has inevitably more or lessabsorbed almost every local language culture wherever it is used. The use of Englishby the non-native English speakers is a process of cultural collision. Thus, WorldEnglishes, or different varieties of English have come into being, such as NigerianEnglish, Malaysian English, Singapore English, Indian English, etc. which areformed with the culture collision when English is used in these countries. With thedevelopment of world economy and the further communication between differentcountries, these new varieties of English, which have been improved every now andthen, have been gradually accepted by the world and given their proper importance.
China English is the one that can never be ignored. It is the product of thelocalization of native English in China, a powerful complement and development ofEnglish, and a useful tool for the world to know China better. There have been hotdebates ever since China English was first put forward. Different voices have beenheard from many scholars. Some scholars are for it, while some are against it. Andthe rest hold neutral attitude to it. After entering into the 21stcentury, the debate of its existence is not as intense as years ago, for the objective existence of it issomething needless to talk about. Until now, the main trend of in this field hasshifted to what can be taken advantage of through the study of China English and putit into practice.
 
1.2 Objective of the Study
We Chinese are proud of our unique culture of more than 5000 years. It is ourobligation to let the world know more and better about China. English is theindispensable bridge in fulfilling this task. Then what is China English? What factorscause the emergence of China English? What characteristics does China Englishhave? What attitude should be held by English learners in China toward ChinaEnglish? Under the guidance of this attitude, what can be changed or improved inEnglish teaching in China in the contemporary world? Those questions are all thetasks of this paper.
 
1.3 Significance of the Study
English has become an international language and carry a heavy load in theexchange of cultures in various nations. English learning in China has been givengreat attention. However, the effect of students’ English learning can be improvedand the practical use of English can be achieved better if we give enough attention toChina English. For an English learner in China, it is not enough to understand whatis said and written in English, but should also input Chinese cultures in English.China English is a lasting topic since 1980s. The international atmosphere and thehigh position China is enjoying gives the research on China English great andspecial significance. As a result English teaching also becomes a cause of greatimportance and value.
 
Chapter Two Literature Review
 
2.1 World Englishe
English is undoubtedly the most widely used language in the world, as mothertongue, second language or as a foreign language in different nations where it is used.English has no plural forms until it is used in countries or areas beside Great Britain.The plural form of English means the varieties of English in different social andcultural contexts. It first emerged in Barbara Strang’s A History of English:You will hear, perhaps, the English of your family, localized or non-localized; ofshopkeepers and bus-conductors, probably localized; if you are a student, you willhear lectures using different Englishes, probably at least one of them having aforeign accent.(Strang 1970:19)
After that, “Englishes” began to be quoted by scholars, but it was not until 1978that the study on it turned up. That year, two important symposiums were heldrespectively in Honolulu in April and in the University of Illinois in June with “thestatus of English as an international and intranational language” as the topic. It wasin the same year that the International Association for World Englishes (IAWE) wasestablished, which focused on the study of forms and functions of varieties ofEnglish in diverse cultural and social-linguistic contexts, including second or foreignlanguage teaching, discourse strategies, identity, ideology, language planning andpolicy, etc. There has been an alarming rise in the study of World Englishes sincethen. Since the 1980s, four major exemplary academic periodicals concerning thestudy of World Englishes have been issued, and they are English World-Wide (issuedin 1980 and edited by Manfred G rlach), English Today (issued in 1985 and editedby Tom McArthur), World Englishes (published in 1985 and co-edited by Kachru and Larry. E. Smith) and Asian Englishes (published in and two of the editors areChinese, Hu Wenzhong and Jia Yuxin). These periodicals make deep research on theemergence of World Englishes and promote the study on non-native varieties ofEnglish.In September 1984, in a conference held in London which was to celebrate thefiftieth anniversary of the British Council, some scholars raised and discussed thequestion of plurality of English. Among them, Kachru from the University of Illinoisat Urbana-Champaign put forward a variant of the ENL/ESL/EFL model for the firsttime which makes up a vast and varied community of what he calls World Englishes(McArthur 1998: 59).
 
Chapter Three Multiple-Level Analysis of China English...........30-54 
    3.1 Analysis at Phonological Perspective......... 30-33 
    3.2 Analysis at Lexical Perspective......... 33-41 
        3.2.1 Cultural Factors on the Lexis .........33-34 
        3.2.2 Ways of the Production of Lexis......... 34-38 
            3.2.2.1 Transliteration......... 34-36 
            3.2.2.2 Translation .........36-37 
            3.2.2.3 Combination of Transliteration......... 37 
            3.2.2.4 Giving New Meaning .........37-38 
        3.2.3 Chinese Idioms......... 38-39 
            3.2.3.1 Literal Translatio......... 38 
            3.2.3.2 Free Translation......... 38-39 
        3.2.4 The Prospect of China English Lexicon......... 39-41 
    3.3 Analysis at Syntactic Perspective .........41-46 
        3.3.1 Differences of CE & NE......... 41-44 
        3.3.2 Reasons behind the Syntactical Differences......... 44-46 
    3.4 Analysis at Discourse Perspective .........46-52 
        3.4.1 Comparative Discourse Samples......... 46-51 
        3.4.2 Reasons behind the Discourse Differences .........51-52 
    3.5 Summary .........52-54 
Chapter Four Enlightenment on English Teaching......... 54-65 
    4.1 Present Situation of English Teaching......... 54-57 
    4.2 Having Correct Attitude toward China English......... 57-61 
    4.3 Suggestions on English Teaching in China......... 61-65 
Chapter Five Conclusion .........65-67 
    5.1 A Brief Summary of the Study......... 65-66 
5.2 Implication and Limitation of This Study.........66-67
 
Conclusion
 
This thesis has a brief review of the studies of World Englishes and ChinaEnglish, and proves that, as a non-native variety of English, China English hasindispensible value in the transmission of Chinese culture. Suggestions have beenmade on English teaching based on the analysis. In the large troops of studies onChina English, this paper is only a drop of water. Limited by time, space, reference,and the author’s ability, there must be a lot left to be done in the future research.
First, the analysis of the characteristics of China English is not systematic.Detailed and systematic analysis based on more accurate language corpus isexpected to make the result more convincing. More studies on China Englishdiscourse are expected in the future.
Second, the questionnaire in Chapter four still has room to be improved. Thesubjects in the questionnaire are a small number in all Chinese college and universitystudents, so their attitudes toward China English and their knowledge about ChinaEnglish are only suggestive but not authoritative. More scientific case studies aboutthe present students’ knowledge about English and China English should bedeveloped to better understand the present English teaching effect in China.
In conclusion, the study on China English is a continuum. The study on China Englishkeeps pace with the development of China. As China is developing stronger and more powerful,the study on China English must be prosperous and vigorous.
 
Bibliography
[1] Adamson, B. 2004. China’s English: A history of English in Chinese education [M]. HongKong: Hong Kong University Press.
[2] Andy Kirkpatrick. 1991. Information Sequencing in Mandarin Letters of Request [J].Anthropological Linguistics, 33 (2).
[3] Bolton, K. Chinese Englishes: A Sociolinguistic Histroy [M]. London: Cambridge UniversityPress.
[4] Christopherson, P. 1988. Native speakers and World English [J]. English Today, 4 (3).
[5] G rlach, M & K. 1985. “Good usage” in an “EFL context” [J]. In S. Greenbaum (ed.) TheEnglish Language Today, 4 (1).
[6] Kachru, B.B. 1982/1992. The Other Tongue: English across Cultures [M]. 2nded. Urbana andChicago : University of Illinois Press.
[7] Kachru, B.B. 1983. The Indianization of English: the English Language in India [M]. Oxford:Oxford University Press.
[8] Kachru, B.B. 1991. Liberation linguistics and the Quirk concern [J]. English Today, 25 (7).
[9] Kirkpatrick, A. & Xu, Zhichang. 2002. Chinese Pragmatic Norms and “China English” [J].World Englishes. 21(2).
[10] McArthur, T.1987. The English Languages? [J]. English Today. 11 (3).
 

英语硕士论文范文精选篇二

 
第一章 绪论
 
1.1 研究背景
当今世界,各国之间激烈的验证自助领取彩金竞争和科技竞争,其实质是APP自助领取彩金8-18和人才的竞争。进入二十一世纪以来,随着我国综合国力的日益增强,更加深刻地认识到APP自助领取彩金8-18事业才是提升我国国际竞争力的根本所在,所以我们应当坚持把APP自助领取彩金8-18摆在优先发展的重要战略地位上。《国家中长期APP自助领取彩金8-18改革和发展规划纲要(2010-2020)》(以下简称《纲要》)的颁布进一步推动了我国APP自助领取彩金8-18事业的不断向前发展。《纲要》中特别提到“义务APP自助领取彩金8-18是APP自助领取彩金8-18工作中的重中之重……要提高义务APP自助领取彩金8-18质量,建立国家义务APP自助领取彩金8-18质量基本标准和监测制度;严格执行义务APP自助领取彩金8-18国家课程标准、教师资格标准;深化课程与教学方法改革……”(2010)。在过去的三十多年中,我国的基础APP自助领取彩金8-18得到了前所未有的重视。英语APP自助领取彩金8-18作为基础APP自助领取彩金8-18的重要部分,也在不断地推进和发展。从改革开放至今,我国的基础英语APP自助领取彩金8-18主要经历了四个比较重要的阶段。第一个阶段的重要标志是 1978 年APP自助领取彩金8-18部颁布的《全日制十年制中小学英语教学大纲(试行草案)》,该大纲的出台结束了我国基础英语APP自助领取彩金8-18的混乱局面,确立了英语在基础APP自助领取彩金8-18阶段中的重要地位。到了 80 年代逐渐进入第二个阶段,随着九年义务APP自助领取彩金8-18的实行,基础英语APP自助领取彩金8-18进入了发展时期,但是由于受到行为主义和结构主义学习理论的影响,英语APP自助领取彩金8-18过于重视语言知识的记忆以及句型操练,忽略了英语学习对于中小学阶段学生发展的真正价值。随着对基础英语APP自助领取彩金8-18认识的不断深入,90 年代初期,素质APP自助领取彩金8-18的重要性逐渐开始受到重视,基础英语APP自助领取彩金8-18也随之进行了相应的调整,进入了第三个发展阶段。第四阶段以 2001 年我国颁布的《全日制义务APP自助领取彩金8-18/普通高级中学英语课程标准(实验稿)》(以下简称新《课标》)为转折点,新一轮的基础英语APP自助领取彩金8-18也由此展开。这是我国基础APP自助领取彩金8-18政策的一个重大转变。“以小学三年级为起点的英语教学在全国推行(部分城市,如上海市则从小学一年级开始推行),我国成了举世无双的英语教学大国,学习英语的学生达 2 亿多,其中中小学生占 1 亿多”(卜玉华,2009:2)。
在英语APP自助领取彩金8-18中,外语教师的重要性是不言而喻的。“由于英语在中国是一门外语,外语使用的环境有限,外语学习者接受外语输入和技能培训主要依赖课堂教学,因此在学生的英语学习过程中,英语教师的作用无论怎样强调都是不过分的”(束定芳,2004:287)。国内外不少专家学者(Richards,2008;张莲,2005;郑新民,2006;周燕,2010 等)早已对这一问题形成共识,他们一致认为教师作为课堂的决策者和执行者,是英语教学改革成功与否最重要的因素之一,APP自助领取彩金8-18改革的实施与落实最终都要通过教师的课堂实践来实现。《纲要》(2010)也指出“……要加强教师队伍建设,要建设高素质教师队伍,加强师德建设,提高教师的业务水平,提高中小学教师队伍的整体素质”。由此可见,“在APP自助领取彩金8-18改革中,当我们越来越关注学习者的时候,教师的作用不会受到丝毫的削弱,相反,他们需要承担更关键、更艰巨的职责”(张建伟,孙燕青,2005:255)。对我们国家而言,深化教师APP自助领取彩金8-18改革,提高基础APP自助领取彩金8-18阶段教师整体素质的意义重大而深远。国内学术界也有不少学者曾纷纷撰文表达对基础APP自助领取彩金8-18阶段中英语APP自助领取彩金8-18的关注。学者胡明扬早在 2002 年就谈到现在中学外语教学的水平低下,直接影响到高等院校学生的英语水平,考虑到小学开设外语课的师资问题一直解决不好,他提倡先集中力量解决中学外语教学的问题(2002:9)。李立,文旭(2006:8)也指出外语教学的全面改革必须大力加强教师队伍的建设。队伍问题有着决定性的作用。中国的外语APP自助领取彩金8-18改革是个巨大的系统工程,必须从小学中学抓起。现在在大学表现出来的问题其实老根都在中小学基础APP自助领取彩金8-18。由此可见,基础APP自助领取彩金8-18阶段,尤其是中学英语APP自助领取彩金8-18在我国英语APP自助领取彩金8-18过程中的重要地位。
在我国,中学英语教师是外语教师中的一个庞大的群体,“根据 2009 年《中国APP自助领取彩金8-18统计年鉴》的数据,我国有初中英语教师达 542633 人,高中英语教师 225471 人”(转引自龚亚夫,2011:60)。面对如此庞大数量的教师群体,国内学术界对我国中学英语教师的关注如何呢?作者以中国期刊全文数据库为检索源,浏览了 8 种国内外语类核心期刊1在 2000 年至 2011 年期间的目录,搜索关键词“中学英语教师”,统计结果显示,共有 8 篇论文发表在《外语教学与研究》、《外语界》、《外语与外语教学》、《解放军外语学院学报》、《外语教学理论与实践》这些期刊上。在这些论文中,内容主要包括中学英语教师话语分析、课堂动机策略、教师APP自助领取彩金8-18、跨文化交际敏感度以及教师信念。单从论文的数量上就可以看出,我们对中学英语教师这一群体的关注度是远远不够的,可以说,他们是一群被忽视的群体。然而,他们身上却肩负着“……激发和培养学生学习英语的兴趣,使学生树立自信心,养成良好的学习习惯和形成有效的学习策略,发展自主学习的能力和合作精神;使学生掌握一定的英语基础知识和听、说、读、写技能,形成一定的综合语言运用能力;培养学生的观察、记忆、思维、想象能力和创新精神;帮助学生了解世界和中西方文化的差异,拓展视野,培养爱国主义精神,形成健康的人生观,为他们的终身学习和发展打下良好的基础(新《课标》,2001)”如此重要的责任和重担。
 
第二章 文献综述
 
2.1 引言
自我效能感这一概念在APP自助领取彩金8-18心理学中被探究已久,其本身是一个非常复杂的构念,主要原因就在于它存在于每个个体独有的自我系统之中。不同的学者对自我效能感的理解也不尽相同。教师自我效能感是由自我效能感这一概念发展起来的,它被看做是“解释教师动机的关键因素”(朱华华,2006:23)和教师发展的动力机制。但是目前对于如何界定和把握教师自我效能感概念的本质以及如何对其客观地考察和评估等问题仍然没有得到很好的解决。
 
2.2.自我效能感
所谓的自我效能(self-efficacy),是美国心理学家 Bandura 于 1977 年在《自我效能:关于行为变化的综合理论》首次提出的一个概念,在许多关于自我效能的叙述中,这一术语常常和自我效能感(sense of self-efficacy)、自我效能信念(self-efficacybeliefs)、自我效能知觉(perceived self-efficacy)和效能信念(efficacy beliefs)等术语交替使用。自我效能感是 Bandura 创建的社会认知理论中的一个重要概念和组成部分。Bandura 的社会认知理论(social cognitive theory),从本质上来看是一个强调自我信念、知觉和期望等认知因素的社会学习理论。它产生于二十世纪六、七十年代,是在对传统行为主义的批判,并受新兴的认知心理学的影响的背景下发展起来的。这一理论的核心是三元交互理论(triadic reciprocality)即行为因素、个人因素和环境因素的相互影响,在这一过程中,它着重强调了人的认知过程对学习和行为所起到的关键的调节作用,人是行为的动因,具有主观能动性(Bandura, 1977;1991;1997)。它认为个体的行为只有通过环境、行为和个人的交互作用才能得以解释。
 
第三章 研究设计........... 56-68 
    3.1 引言 ..........56 
    3.2 研究问题 ..........56-57 
    3.3 研究工具及过程..........57-67 
    3.4 本章小结 ..........67-68 
第四章 调查的结果与讨论.......... 68-101 
    4.1 引言.......... 68 
    4.2 定量研究..........68-99 
    4.3 本章小结.......... 99-101 
第五章 个案研究.......... 101-135 
    5.1 引言.......... 101 
    5.2 学生的反馈 ..........101-113 
    5.3 课堂观察..........113-126 
    5.4 访谈.......... 126-133 
5.5 本章小结 ..........133-135
 
结论
 
本研究首先围绕教师自我效能感这一概念展开理论研究,梳理了教师自我效能感的由来、定义、理论来源及其测量。在文献回顾中,笔者认为教师自我效能感作为教师自我认识的一个重要组成部分,是教师成长的内在动力机制,对外语教师的专业发展起着积极的作用。在这一部分,笔者仔细阐述了 Tshannen-Moran 等人提出的教师自我效能感的模型。该模型展现了教师自我效能感的动态本质,认为它通过影响教师的认知过程、动机过程、情感过程和选择过程而对教师的课堂教学活动发挥一定的控制和调节作用。因此,从理论上来看,教师的自我效能感与教师的课堂教学之间有着非常紧密的联系。在此基础上,笔者结合我国特定的外语教学环境,阐述了课堂教学对于外语学习的重要性。尤其在中学阶段,面对缺乏自主学习能力的外语学习者,课堂教学以及外语教师的作用显得特别重要。新《课标》的出台进一步明确了我国中学英语教学的培养目标,但是要想在课堂教学中真正贯彻实施新《课标》的教学理念关键还在于外语教师。
笔者接着回顾和总结了国内外关于教师自我效能感与课堂教学的相关研究。结果发现,国外这方面的研究已开始呈现出由理论探讨向实证研究转变的趋势,其特点表现为研究方法多样化、研究领域具体化和研究范围国际化。然而在这些研究中,几乎所有的结论都呈现高度的一致性,即教师的自我效能感与其教学行为及教学效果之间呈正相关。与国外的研究相比较,目前国内大多数研究仍停留在以理论探讨为主的阶段,实证研究寥寥无几。从总体上来看,在这一领域,对于教师自我效能感内涵的模糊不清、测量工具的混乱以及在外语APP自助领取彩金8-18层面上研究的不足都促使笔者对这一内容展开探索性的研究。
通过对前人研究的梳理,本研究开展了一项对我国部分中学外语教师的自我效能感的现状以及其影响因素的实证探索。首先笔者采用自行设计的问卷调查对 164 名中学英语教师在教学策略与技巧、课堂组织与管理、学生参与、情感态度和文化意识的培养、教材处理以及师生交流这六个方面的自我效能感进行了调查。根据问卷调查的结果,笔者选择了自我效能感较高和较低的各两位英语教师进行了个案研究。个案研究主要分为两个阶段,第一个阶段是学生问卷调查,第二个阶段主要是课堂观察和对教师的深度访谈。在第一阶段中,笔者对这四位教师所教授的四个班级的共 211 位学生进行了问卷调查,并将四个班的学生问卷进行了对比,结果显示出教师的自我效能感与学生对教师课堂教学的反馈并不一致。自我效能感高的教师,其学生的反馈未必比自我效能感低的教师的学生的反馈好。在第二个阶段,笔者以旁观者的身份进入课堂,力图站在被研究对象的立场上解读教师的课堂行为和内心世界。第二个阶段的研究结果表明,教师的自我效能感有时会与其教学行为出现“脱节”现象,原因是复杂多样的。并且,教师自我效能感的形成是内外因共同作用的结果,教师对语言教学本质的理解、教学经验、教师的知识体系、学生的学习状态以及学校文化等等都与之存在千丝万缕的联系。
 
参考文献
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英语硕士论文范文精选篇三

 
第一章 医学论文的文本特征及一般翻译原则
 
(一)医学英语的文本特征
医学英语是科技英语(English for Science and Technology, EST)的一大分支。科技英语的特点是注重叙事、逻辑上的连贯以及表达上的明晰与畅达、避免行文晦涩、作者避免表露强烈的个人情感、避免论证上的主观随意性。少用或不用描述性形容词以及具有抒情作用等的副词、感叹词等,讲究平易和精确,尽力避免使用旨在加强语言感染力和宣传效果的各种修辞格,忌用夸张、讥讽。反语等修辞手段,以便使读者产生行文浮华,内容失真的感觉[1]。医学英语除了符合以上特点外,还具有高度的概念性、抽象性、客观性和说理性;在语义表达上力求措辞精确、结构严谨、层次清晰、逻辑严密;用词上讲究术语的专业性、书面性和国际通用性。因此,从科技文体的角度理解和掌握医学英语的文体特点,对医学英语的翻译实践具有重要的指导意义[2]。此外,医学英语题材总类繁多,包括药品说明书、病历、医学论文、医学综述、病历报告、临床试验方案、科普文章等。不同题材文章的写作目的不同,读者群体不同,在词汇、语法、风格上各有特色,呈现高度的“语篇题材特殊化(Genre-specific)”的特点[3]。即同类题材具备大致相同的格式要求和表达方法。但在总体上讲,医学英语主要的特征相识,主要体现在词汇和句子两个方面,具体如下:
 
1、 医学英语的词汇特点
医学是一门高度专业化、科学化的学科,因此医学英语的最大特点就是大量的医学专业术语,而这些词汇几乎从来不见于其他领域的文章中,并且词汇是语言的基础,所以要了解医学英语必须先从了解医学术语开始,了解医学词汇的构成和特点对正确理解和翻译医学英语文献起着至关重要的作用。
 
(1) 派生词
医学专业的基本词汇约为 50000 个,来源于十几种语言,但大多数来自于有很强造词功能的希腊语和拉丁语,其次是法语。其中来源于希腊和拉丁语的词汇占 75%以上,这些词多为派生词。派生词是用一个现成的词或词根加上另一些本身并不单独存在但有固定意思的词素构成。具有词义的单一性和准确性,词的构成显示词的意义,同时分段式的构成又易于记忆,词根和词缀潜能巨大的特点[4]。正是通过这种派生,医学英语才有了能表达内容丰富、微妙且复杂的医学科学的大量词汇,才能随着医学科技的发展不断产生出新的词汇来满足现在和将来的需要[5]。由于派生词是词素按照一定规则构成,所以大多为多音节和多词素,因而只要理解其中的各个组成部分,通常情况下就能推断出词的意思。比如 hemo- 这个词根是“血”的意思,hemodystropy(血液营养不良,dys 拉丁语前缀,意为异常,不足;trophy 希腊词根,意为营养),再比如本文后面讨论的案例中的 hepatitis(肝炎,hepa(t)- 意为肝;-itis 意为炎症)等。所以学习和翻译医学术语,要抓住词根(词干)、前缀和后缀这三大要素的含义。
 
(2) 缩略词
缩略语使词或词组的简略形式,具有专业性强、信息量大、简明便捷等特点。医学英语是科技英语中使用缩略语最多的领域之一。因为医学专业术语长且比较繁复,为了便于医学信息交流,常常会创造一个缩略词来浓缩常用信息。比如医生的处方以及化验单上几乎全都使用缩略语来代替医学专业词汇,如肝功能中最常见的一项指标,也出现本文讨论的案例文章的标题中,ALT。有些常用的疾病名、检查项目等甚至已经成为人们日常生活中的常用语,如 SARS(Severe Acute Respiratory Syndromes, 严重急性呼吸综合征,又称传染性非典型性肺炎,简称非典), AIDS(Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, 获得性免疫缺陷综合症,又称艾滋病), CT(Computed Tomography, 计算机体层摄影)等。在医学英语文献中存在大量的多且长的专业词汇,运用缩略语可以使阅读更为轻松,易懂。值得一提的是在医学资料中还有一类常见的缩写,这些缩写代表的是一些著名的医学机构和医学杂志,比如 NIH(National Institutes of Health,美国国立卫生研究院), FDA(Food and Drug Administration, 美国食品与药物管理局), NEJM(The New England Journal of Medicine, 新英格兰医学杂志(世界上最著名也是历史最悠久的医学期刊))。行业内人士经常在口头交流和文献中使用这类缩略语。从缩略语的构成形式来看,可以简单分为:第一,由组成该缩略语的各实词的首字母构成,比如前面举的一些例子大部分都是由各实词的首字母构成;第二,提取原有单词、词组中的主要字母,比如 TB(tuberculosis,肺结核),flu(influenza, 流感),甚至连最近热门的鸟叔将自己英文名起为 PSY 也是为了和精神病(psychosis)的简称相同。
 
第二章 结合一篇医学论文的英译中案例谈医学翻译策略
 
(一) 案例介绍
本文讨论的案例是一篇名为 Follow-up and indications for liver biopsy inHBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B virus infection with persistently normal ALT:A systematic review(《丙氨酸氨基转移酶持续正常的 HBeAg 阴性慢性乙型肝炎病毒感染者随访和肝活检指征:一项系统回顾》)的医学论文。文章原文为英文,发表在欧洲肝病研究学会(EASL,European Association for the Study of the Liver)的会刊Journal of Hepatology。该杂志为国际肝脏病领域的权威杂志之一,每月一期,SCI 影响因子 2011 年为 9.33。为将该杂志发表的最新研究成果和进展更好的介绍给广大的中国肝病和感染病医生,2012 年开始在中国成立编辑部发行该杂志的中文版,即《肝脏病学杂志》中文版,每 2 个月一期,杂志编辑部有一个由国内肝病领域知名专家组成的编委会,编委会的成员负责在近几期英文版文章中投票选取几篇学术水平高又对中国医生有启发意义的文章进行全文翻译,再选取十几篇文章的摘要翻译。
本案例的英文原文发表于 2012 年 7 月(具体发表信息为:Journal of Hepatology 2012 vol. 57/196-202)。中文译文发表在《肝脏病学杂志》中文版的第三期上,已于 2012 年 10月底正式出版发行。《肝脏病学杂志》中文版的第三期共发表四篇全文翻译的文章,本文讨论的案例就是其中的一篇。确定翻译的文章都分派给各个编委,在一定时间内编委需将译稿交给编辑部,编委由于都是医学专家,工作较忙、一般会交予科室里的研究生或下级医生先译初稿,编委再在初稿基础上审阅修改并针对问题与初译者讨论,最后译稿再由初译者与编委分别通读,如发现问题再讨论修改。对于全文翻译的文章,编委还需要对翻译的这篇研究论文的内容写个简短的点评,最后在编辑部要求的时间点前交稿。编辑部拿到编委的稿件后需要校对、执行主编审阅修改、排版、执行主编审核、主编审核和 EASL 审核,最后正式发表。本案例全文约一万字,翻译时间从 2012 年 8 月29 日到 9 月 15 日。笔者作为此案例的初译者,与专家编委共同完成翻译任务。
 
第二章 结合一篇医学论文的英译.................. 15-25 
    (一) 案例介绍................. 15 
    (二) 案例分析................. 15-25 
        1、如何保证医学翻译的专业................. 16-19 
        2、如何保证医学翻译的忠实性 .................19-21 
        3、如何保证医学翻译的流畅性 .................21-25
 
结论
 
随着国际交流的频繁,医学翻译的需求量日益增大,但要做好医学翻译却不容易。本文结合实际案例探讨了医学翻译的策略,以及如何保证医学翻译的专业性、忠实性和流畅性。在保证译文的专业性方面,首先要对翻译的医学分支领域的知识有基本了解,并通过网络查找专业文献作为平行文本,必要时还要请教医学专业领域内的专家,保证专业术语、表达方式、文章格式上的专业性;在保证翻译的忠实性上,严谨细致的态度最重要,对信息量密集的长句标出每个信息点,确保翻译后每个信息点准确无误的翻译,没有漏掉任何一个小的细节;在保证译文的流畅方面,重点是译文表达上符合目的语的语法习惯,避免翻译腔。对长句复杂句的翻译主要是抓住句子的主干,分析主干与修饰成分的关系,顺译或重组句子结构。本文由于笔者水平和经验所限,疏漏之处在所难免,希望能抛砖引玉,对从事医学翻译的译者有更多启示。
 
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英语硕士论文范文精选篇四

 
第1章文献综述
 
语言测试对语由.教学与学习的这种影响通常被称之为“反拨作用(wash-back)”。有关反拨作用的理论和研究在20世纪80年代迅速发展,这些研究表明语言测试的反拨作用是真实存在的,既有积极的反拨作用,也有消极的反拨作用。本部分主要围绕成绩测试研究和反拨效应研究两个方面进行文献综述。成绩测试研究部分梳理了成绩测试的定义、成绩测试的信度和效度、成绩测试与教学的关系三个方面,提出了本研究中成绩测试的定义范围。反拨效应研究部分梳理了国内外的反拨效应相关理论研究和实证研究,提出本研究的研究内容。
 
1.1成绩测试的研究
测试以不同的标准为基准可以有不同的类型,.Hughes (2000)认为以测试目的为基准,测试可以分为水平测试(proficiency test)、成绩测试(achievement test)、分班测试(placement test)、诊断测试(diagnostic test)、潜能测试(aptitude test)。
 
1.1.1成绩测试的定义
不同研究者对于成绩测试的定义各有不同。成绩测试用来考查学生对所学语言知识的掌握程度,它一般要参考某种课程标准或教学目标,甚至会考虑到教学方法,可以进一步细分为终结性成绩测试和过程性成绩测试。终结性成绩测试一般是在学习结束之后进行,编制试卷和实施考试工作通常由相关的APP自助领取彩金8-18部门和考试部门负责。比如一个地区的学期期末考试由该地区的APP自助领取彩金8-18局统一组织。过程性成绩测试是为了检查教师的教学和学生的学习进展。这种成绩测试可以是比较正规的标准化测试,也可以是教师自行编制和设计,内容和形式根据教学情况而定。通常学校里的平时测验、期中考试就属于过程性测试。其中,教师根据教学内容情况自行编制和设计的小测验也可以称之为进度测试。所谓进度测试,是一种非正式的回顾型测试,用于了解学生过去一段时间学习有什么进步,学习过的内容是否己经掌握。此外,教师可以根据学生答卷的情况回顾过去这一段时间教学的情况,摸清哪些内容教得好,哪些内容有问题,以便确定下一阶段白菜彩金网址大全4001教,白菜彩金网址大全4001改进教学工作。西班牙学者Carmen Perez Basanta (1996)等认为“既然一门有计划的课程应当测定学生实现课程目标的程度,那么进度测试就应该是学习进程的一个非常重要的部分。(1)老师可以通过测试知道学生掌握了哪些方面和还有哪些方面没掌握。(2)测试向学生表明了其学习进展情况,这可促使他们更加严肃认真地对待自己的学习。(3)测试可以测出学生在哪些方面强,在哪些方面弱,从而有助于弄清楚哪些方面需要改进。(4)测试有助于评估大纲、教科书、教学材料以及教学方法等”。舒运祥T' (2001)认为“进度考试应把重点放在:测定一个单元中所有的教学目标达成的情况,(2)利用考试结果改进教学,而不是简单地给学生一个分数或等第。它的测试目的是找出学生学习中的成绩与不足之处,以调整教学提高质量 ”。
 
第2章研究设计
 
2. 1研究问题
本论文通过问卷调查、访谈、课堂观察等方法研究高中英语成绩测试对教与学的反拨效应。通过定量与定性研究相结合的方法,多方面、综合地考察高中英语成绩测试对教与学的影响。本研究拟重点探讨以下三个问题:1)目前高中英语成绩测试的现状如何?存在的问题是什么?2)成绩测试对高中英语教师的教与学生的学产生什么影响?产生影响的原因是什么?3)如何发挥成绩测试的积极反拨效应?
 
2. 2研究对象
本研究选取南京市一所四星级高中的390名学生和21名英语教师为被试对象。该校每个年级有三个层次的班级,分别为精品班、实验班、普通班。从该校每个年级的各次班级中随机抽取1个班级,共计9个班级,学生年级分布具体情况见表2-1,教师的基本情况统计见表2-2。
表2-2显示本次问卷调查的教师涵盖各个教龄段,其中教龄为5-10年和10-20年的教师所占比例较大,分别为42.86%和33.33%。这类中青年教师大多已经成为学校英语教学的主力军,其中有的经历过几次大的英语教学改革,参加过课程改革培训以及其他形式的在职学习与培训。教龄为5年以下的年轻教师也通过大学的课程学习、新教师入职培训等形式学习过测试的信度、效度、区分度、试卷编制的原则、方法等理论知识,但访谈中98%的教师表示在过去的三年中没有进修学习的机会。
 
第3章 研究结果与讨论 ................26-40 
    3.1 对测试卷的分析结果............... 26-28 
        3.1.1 测试卷的类型............... 26 
        3.1.2 测试卷的结构............... 26-27 
        3.1.3 测试卷的来源............... 27-28 
    3.2 问卷调查结果............... 28-35 
        3.2.1 成绩测试对教师教的影响 ...............29-33 
        3.2.2 成绩测试对学生学的影响 ...............33-35 
    3.3 访谈结果............... 35-37 
        3.3.1 教师访谈结果......................35-37 
        3.3.2 学生访谈结果............... 37 
    3.4 课堂观察结果............... 37-40 
第4章 结论与建议............... 40-47 
    4.1 本研究的结论............... 40-42 
4.2 本研究对高中英语教学的启示............... 42-47
 
结论
 
本研究分析了高中英语成绩测试的现状、成绩测试对教师和学生的反拨效应以及影响成绩测试反拨效应的因素。本研究运用了问卷调查、访谈和课堂观察的方法。问卷调查用来了解成绩测试对教师和学生的影响,课堂观察和访谈深入探究成绩测试对教师和学生的影响具体表现以及形成这种状况的原因。本研究的研究对象包括南京市某中学的390名学生和21名英语教师。研究要解决的关键问题是:
1)目前高中英语成绩测试的现状如何?存在的问题是什么?
2)成绩测试对高中英语教师的教与学生的学产生什么影响?产生影响的原因是什么?
3)如何发挥成绩测试的积极反拨效应?
研究结果表明成绩测试影响英语课堂教学,一方面尽管教师己经认识到“为测试而教”的负面影响,他们也没有改变教学方式。高中英语新课程标准强调发展性评价,在评价方法上注重过程,在评价的理念上更注重期望与激励。但是由于高考指挥棒的影响,对学校和教师的评价关注在学生的高考成绩。另一方面,高中学生希望教师的教学内容围绕测试,考什么,教什么,这也导致了为测试而教。
 
参考文献
[1]Alderson & D.Wall. Does washback exz5/?[M].Shanghai: Foreign LanguageEducation Press, 1993.
[2]Alderson, J. C. & D. Wall. Does washback exist?[J]. Applied linguistics, 1993.
[3]Alderson,J. C. & L. Hamp-Lyons. TOEFL preparation courses: A study ofwashback[J]. Language Testing,1996
[4]Bachman &Paimer. Language Testing in Practice[M]. Oxford:OUP, 1996.
[5]Bailey.K.M. Working: A Review of the Washback Concept in LanguageTesting[J].Language Testing, 1996.
[6]Brown, J . D. Do tests washback on the language classroom?[J]. TESOL ANZJournal,1997.
[7]Cronbrach. Essentials of Psychological Testing[M]. New York: Harper and Row,1984.
[8]Cunningham George. Assessment in the Classroom:Constructing and Interpretingres[M]. London: Faimer Press, 1998.
[9]Davies The construction of language tests In Allen and DaviesJ997.
[10]Davies, Alan. Principles of language testinglM]. Oxford; Basil Blackwell,1990.
 

英语硕士论文范文精选篇五

 
1.简介
 
1.1研究内容
现在的学生都喜欢接受协作学习,协作学习对商务英语谈判口语APP自助领取彩金8-18有积极作用。有益于增强学生学习能力、提高学生自信心,有利于创造良好的环境,增加学生课堂参与交流的机会,提高学习效果。Business English has witnessed great advancement in the past two decades andattracted increasing interest and awareness. It must be seen in the overall context ofEnglish for Specific Purposes (ESP). BusinessEnglish Negotiation Course (BENC) isone of the most important courses of ESP, which differs from English for GeneralPurposes (EGP). This course is the final practice of business English learning whoseobjective is to cultivate practical and technical interdisciplinary business Englishtalents and students' negotiation ability under foreign business environment. To becapable of the future job, the students should master the negotiation skills andcross-cultural knowledge and learn to use English in foreign trade communication.However, business English negotiation teaching has many problems.
One of the problems is the single teaching mode. The teaching method manyteachers for ESP adopt can not fulfill the teaching objective of BENC. Teachers adoptthe Grammar Translation method to guide their teaching, while the students just sitthere and listen to them. But higher vocational basic requirements on English teachingrequires higher vocational English teaching should follow the practical and sufficientprinciple and specialized course teaching should put stress on pertinence andapplication, but because of the restrict of the traditional teaching, part of the highervocational technical colleges still use the traditional teacher-centered teaching pattern. Consequently, textbook learning and social practice cannot effectively be combined,which leads to the serious separation of theory and practice. The second problem isthe lack of teachers with inter-disciplinary knowledge in some higher vocationaltechnical colleges. The teachers in the specific field do not understand the realbusiness environment and lack the enterprise or company working experience. Thethird one is the exam standard. At present, the test system of BENC in our country isshort of a unified, concrete operating standard. Many teachers usually rely on thesubjective judgment and the spoken language test becomes a form, so it can not reallytest out students' practical English skills and communication skills.
Anqing Vocational Technical College offered BENC for Business English majorsin 2006. BENC has become an important specialized course. But with the timepassing by, although teaching contents, teaching means, teacher team structure, theconstruction of training bases and the course have been paid much attention to and thestudents also spend a lot of time and energy studying spoken English for businessnegotiation, the result is not ideal enough. It has been an urgent task for all teachersand school authorities to completely change the traditional teaching mode and adopt anew higher vocational educational model in business English negotiation teaching.How to get rid of the traditional cramming method of teaching? How to train thestudents' communicative ability? How to improve business English negotiationlearning and teaching? The author is motivated to carry out this study so as to answerthese questions.
 
2.文献综述
 
2.1商务英语谈判口语研究
协作学习运用于高专学院商务英语谈判口语APP自助领取彩金8-18是势在必行的,它的确有益于商务英语谈判口语学习和APP自助领取彩金8-18实证。Negotiation is the process people use to exchange opinions and discuss with theircounterparts for agreement. It is one of the most common forms of social interaction.Business negotiation concerns business affairs, which is an important link in theinternational business activities.
Business negotiation is defined as "negotiation dealing with business affairs. Ittakes place between human beings. It arranges the settlement of terms and conditionsof trade by discussions. It may finally lead to agreement through negotiations andcompromise. It includes consultation, bargaining, mediation, arbitration andsometimes, even litigation." (Zhang Gao & Gu, Xiumei, 2006:3).In international trade, the seller intends to sell the goods and services at a higherprice while the buyer intends to buy them at a lower price. They will conflict andcooperate with a common goal but different methods. Business negotiation isconsidered as an important part of the total international business activity.
An enquiry is a request for the trade terms of certain commodity. There are twokinds of enquiries: a general enquiry and a specific enquiry. An offer is the expressionof the wishes of the seller or buyer to sell/ buy particular goods under certainconditions. Once the exporter sends out the information about what he is ready to sell,the offer is made. In the course of business negotiation, when a buyer refuses toaccept all or part of the terms and conditions made by the seller, the buyer will statehis own terms and conditions to the seller, which is called counter-offer. Theacceptance is a statement made by or an action conducted by the buyer indicatingassent to an offer. Once the offer is accepted, the order is followed.To sum up, business negotiation is one course for one to leam lifelong. Onlywhen they master its knowledge of various aspects can the two sides build up aharmonious and cooperative relationship and prompt the smooth conduct of trade andeventually achieve successM trade.
 
Chapter Three Methodology....................... 27-39 
    3.1 Research questions....................... 27 
    3.2 Subjects....................... 27-28 
    3.3 Instruments .......................28-32 
        3.3.1 Questionnaires .......................28-29 
        3.3.2 Tests .......................29-30 
        3.3.3 Classroom Observations....................... 30-31 
        3.3.4 Interview....................... 31-32 
    3.4 Treatment .......................32-36 
    3.5 Data collection and analysis procedure.......................36-39 
Chapter Four Results and Discussion....................... 39-53 
    4.1 Students' attitudes towards cooperative ....................... 39-44 
        4.1.1 Learning motivations .......................39-40 
        4.1.2 Classroom participations....................... 40-41 
        4.1.3 Other attitudes towards cooperative ....................... 41-42 
        4.1.4 Students' comments on cooperative ....................... 42-44 
    4.2 Improvement on the students' oral English .......................44-47 
    4.3 Improvement on the students' negotiation....................... 47-53 
Chapter Five Conclusion .......................53-56 
    5.1 Major findings of the study....................... 53 
    5.2 Implications of the study....................... 53-54 
    5.3 Limitations of the study  .......................54-56
 
Conclusion结论
 
Through experimental research and quantitative and qualitative analyses of thedata collected, the following major findings have been concluded.
1. A majority of the students in EC are eager to accept CL. CL applied to BENCteaching in higher vocational technical colleges has an affirmative impact. It isconducive to strengthening students' learning motivations, enhancing learners'self-confidence in English learning. It is also beneficial to create a good emotionalenvironment and increase students' classroom participation, at the same time, it givesan opportunity to exchange and improve effective learning.
2. Traditional teaching methods view that it is the teacher that causes learning tooccur. In the CL classroom, the teacher's role changes from giving information tofacilitating students' learning. Every one succeeds when the group succeeds. Incontrast with the traditional teaching methods, CL promptly increases businessnegotiation achievements of the students.
3. CL can improve students' negotiation abilities, specifically on the cooperationpractice and communication ability. In the implementation of CL, the studentsunderstand their subject status gradually and clearly. They actively participate in theCL activities and improve their cooperation skills and qualities. Eventually theirbusiness English negotiation abilities are improved inevitably.
 

英语硕士论文范文精选篇六

 
1 绪论
 
1.1 问题的提出
应用语言学和心理语言学的研究表明学生自我意识的提高,自我情感的觉醒是学习外语的基本条件,可以为学生提供自由学习的空间,而学生良好情感、学习行为的培养是与和谐的校园教学生态环境密不可分的,他们将长期影响学生的学习、生活。因此,教师必须改变传统的教学模式,重视校园外语教学生态环境的建设,优化学生学习的语言环境,提高他们的语言感知能力。英语知识的习得依赖于学生的认知体验,它是学校教学环境各个APP自助领取彩金8-18因素中最隐蔽的部分,教师必须创设和谐的育人环境,使之与学生的心理发展、情感态度相适应。当前许多学校的教师都在进行有关新课改的实验,努力改进自己的教学方法,付出了很多,但效果却不太令人满意。学生经过小学、中学、大学长时间的外语学习在生活中仍不能自由的交际,传统的填鸭式教学已不能适应社会验证自助领取彩金发展的需要。
生态学让我们从一个崭新的视角来重新思考学校英语教学,校园内部的各种APP自助领取彩金8-18因素构成了一个有机的、动态的生态环境,各种生态因子之间不断进行着物质、能量、信息的交换,维持着教学环境的生态平衡。生态视野下校园英语教学环境的建设并不只是简单的对影响英语教学的限制因子进行完善和补充,而是让它们协调共生、共同发展,充分发挥各生态因子的自我调节机制,使我们的英语教学在和谐稳定的生态环境中进行,不断提高教学质量。
 
1.2 研究的时代背景
中学英语新课程标准强调英语教学应注重学生的全面发展,充分发挥学生学习的主体性、积极性、激发他们学习外语的兴趣,增强学生在实践中综合运用语言的能力,使学生在学习中获得成就感,体验成功带来的喜悦。教师的外语教学要和学生的外语交际能力的培养同步进行,因此我们的外语教学必须走在学生的前面,有效地组织课内外各种学习活动。传统外语教学忽视了语言教学的实践性和实用性,忽视了师生之间的教学互动以及教学过程中存在的多种因素,教学内容与学生的现实生活脱节,对学生语言技能的训练不够,学生被动的接受知识,很少提出自己的问题,教师的教学方法与学生的心理发展规律不一致,课堂容易产生疲劳现象。而大多数教师进行的所谓的“新课改”仅仅是课堂上增加一些简单的对话而已,学校的“英语角”、“ 英语学习园地”、“口语比赛”等课外实践活动由于对学生的外语感知能力培养不够,而没有发挥其应有的功能。教师历来重视学科课程的开发,在上课、备课、改作业、考试等环节下了很大的功夫,结果造成了学生高分低能现象的出现。我们应该认识到学生的学习是在教师、教学活动、校园文化等各种环境因素的相互影响下进行的,教师专业理论水平的提高可通过继续APP自助领取彩金8-18、校本课程的研发等形式来实现,但学生情感认知、学习态度等因素的改变则需要我们付出长期的努力。教学环境能潜移默化的影响学生的人生观、价值观,有其积极的一面,也有其消极的影响。
在教学中,教师要充分发挥学校教学环境的积极功能,合理规划校园物理环境、文化制度、学习氛围等,使其协调一致,共同发展。教师可将教学目标细化为一系列可操作的语言知识体系,帮助学生建构自己的知识结构并进行有意义的针对性训练,使英语教学贴近学生的生活,逐步提高他们的言语交际能力。在英语教学中,教师、学生、学习环境三者之间有机结合是建设和谐外语教学环境的必要条件,如果我们从生态学的视角来建设校园英语教学环境,可以尽可能的减少其中的消极因素,在应试APP自助领取彩金8-18的影响下,校园教学环境受到人为的干预,各生态因子之间的平衡局面被打破,造成了教学活动与学习环境之间的冲突,影响了教学环境整体功能的发挥,学科知识的教学只有通过学生的内化、吸收才能转化为自己的知识结构,而和谐稳定的教学环境则能有效的促进学生对知识的内化与吸收,生态视野下的学校教学环境建设从制约英语教学的各种限制因子出发,发挥各生态因子之间的协调共生、相互促进的功能,努力促使各限制因子向非限制因子的转变,为学校外语教学提供一个良好的生态环境。
 
2 生态学视野下的初中英语教学环境分析
 
2.1 初中英语教学环境生态系统分析
生态视野下英语教学生态环境的建设受多种生态因子的影响,我们在建设校园教学生态环境的时候,要考虑各生态因子之间的协调一致、和谐发展,逐步发挥校园生态环境的育人功能。初中生正是成长发展的迅速转型期,情感重于理智,优美和谐的校园环境更容易引起他们情感上的共鸣,使他们迅速的投入到学习活动中,给学生的学习创设一个结构合理,井然有序的生态型语言学习环境。
 
2.1.1 初中英语教学环境的生态主体
从生态学的角度看,生态系统中的能量、信息流动指的是有机物的生长过程离不开能量的传递和转化,植物光合作用所需要的水,二氧化碳等都需要有机物不断与周围环境进行光、水、二氧化碳、湿度的交换才能完成,有机物通过交换获得到了自身生长所需的能量,而自然界则通过交换获得了维持生态系统平衡所需要的氧气、营养物物质,有机物的生长过程中是在物理、化学、行为等信息的传递过程中实现。在初中英语教学环境生态系统中,教师和学生是教学环境中的生态主体,教师、学生、教学方法、语言环境等生态因子之间通过能量、信息的流动而相互依存,相互发展构成了一个有机的统一整体。
教学环境的主导因素是人,教师和学生是教学生态环境中的主要种群,英语教学活动是一个由师生构成的双边多向活动。教师和学生之间协调发展,相互联系,共同促进了教学活动的开展,任何一方的变化都会相应的引起另一方的发展变化,教学环境的平衡局面一旦被打破,教学活动就无法正常开展。在教学活动中,教师和学生之间的共生关系只有成为现实,各生态因子之间能量的输送、输出才能自由进行,达到可持续的发展。在学校教学生态环境中,教师是生产者,学生是消费者,教师对教学资源进行加工,生产出“营养物质”,学生在“无机环境”—教学环境中通过内化,吸收这些无形的“营养物质”,合成添加到自己的知识结构中,才能建构新的知识,丰富自己的语言知识体系。教师在教学中也深受学生的影响,学生的价值理念、情感态度、价值观等促使教师不断调整教学方法,适合学生的学习需求,跟上时代的步伐。在英语口语课上,教师只有选择学生感兴趣的话题作为课堂教学材料,才能引起学生情感上的共鸣、心灵上的波动,使英语教学变得生动有趣。校园教学生态环境本身是一个开放的系统,需要不断地与外界进行能量的流动,才能保持自身发展的活力,同时,学生群体之间也存在着协调共生的现象,英语新课程改革重视外语交际能力的培养,学生群体在学习中只有处于各自发展的生态位、扮演不同的角色,才能充分利用教学资源,保证学习活动的顺利进行。
 
3 初中英语教学环境现状的调查....................... 32-66 
    3.1 初中英语教学环境现状的调查....................... 32-60 
        3.1.1. 初中英语教学环境课堂....................... 32-52 
        3.1.2 问卷调查 .......................52-60 
    3.2 对初中英语教学环境调查.......................60-66 
        3.2.1 初中英语教学环境现状....................... 60-62 
        3.2.2 初中英语教学环境中的问题 .......................62-66 
4 生态视野下初中英语教学环境.......................66-77 
    4.1 转变教师教学观念.......................66-67 
        4.1.1 多媒体教学要.......................66-67 
        4.1.2 合理利用网络资源....................... 67 
    4.2 营造协调共生的班级生态空间....................... 67-69 
        4.2.1 尊重学生的个体差异....................... 68 
        4.2.2 重视班级发展边缘效应.......................68-69 
    4.3 加强生态资源的合理配置....................... 69-71 
        4.3.1 寻求自身发展的优势....................... 69-70 
        4.3.2 关注学生的学习兴趣....................... 70-71 
    4.4 要力避花盆效应.......................71-73 
        4.4.1 重视学生语言交际能力....................... 71-72 
        4.4.2 加强学校英语角的建设.......................72 
        4.4.3 积极开展英语课外实践....................... 72-73 
    4.5 树立可持续发展的教学生态观....................... 73-75 
        4.5.1 树立生态型的人际交往意识....................... 74 
        4.5.2 重视学生的生态主.......................74-75 
4.6 制定高效和谐的学校评价....................... 75-77
 
结论
 
初中英语新课程改革是一项艰巨的任务,其中学校英语教学环境的建设是新课改能否取得成功的关键,新时期初中英语教学的目的是促进学生语言运用综合能力的发展。本文从生态学的视角对初中英语教学环境的建设进行探索,通过课堂观察、问卷调查,文献资料分析等研究方法,寻找现实学校教学环境中存在的问题,提出改善初中英语教学环境的设想。生态学是一门新兴的学科,为我们研究教学问题提供了新的视角,学校英语教学环境的建设是教学设备,教学方法,语言学习氛围,师生关系等多种因素综合作用的结果,任何一方的变化发展都会影响到另一方的发展乃至外语教学环境整体生态效益的发挥,生态视野下的教学环境建设着重探讨了影响学校教学环境建设的各种生态因子的作用,功能以及他们的相互作用的机制,使各种生态因子之间协调共生,共同发展,保持教学环境的和谐稳定。
初中英语教学环境的建设是一项不容忽视的任务,这需要广大教师通过坚持不懈的努力才能完成,本研究也存在一些问题与不足,希望教师不吝指出,以便去的进一步的改进和完善,在这里,向所有关心过并指导过论文写作的教师和同学表示衷心的感谢!

 

英语硕士论文范文精选篇七

 
第1章简介
 
1.1研究的背景
随着验证自助领取彩金的快速发展和知识的快速传播,英语已经在生活和国际上占据了越来越重要的位置。英语作为交流媒介的类型,已被广泛应用于电脑,科学,技术和商业领域的每一个地方,尤其是在外语教学和学习。本文重点介绍商务英语的广泛应用。stage. Beyond doubt, we witness some obvious and amazing progress in Englisheducation in these years. However, the current teaching mode has still tendedbackwardness which can not guarantee high-quality requirement or cater to socialdevelopment and progress. 
The traditional teaching method has laid too much stresson grammar and vocabulary without enough focus on practical performance and taskactivities.In some big countries, English has been taught from the third grade in primaryschools,but a satisfactory teaching result has not been reached. The biggest obstaclefor the students in studying English is that they do not know how to express andcommunicate in English in the authentic situational context rather than to emphasizethe application of vocabulary and grammar. In the past, traditional method of foreignlanguage teaching has attached much to grammar and scores of the examination. Thestudents' competence has not been increased. This is not the target that qualityeducation pursues. In order to enhance the students' competence in English, expertsand teachers realize that it is urgent to improve foreign language teaching efficiency.They attach more and more importance to communication and autonomy in theirown classes,but there is no real communicative environment and opportunities forthe students to practice. The current situation needs to be changed as quickly aspossible.
 
1.2 Purpose of the study研究目的
In recent years, a new round of teaching reform, which has aroused strongrepercussions in China, attracted many experts and teachers to pay attention, toreflect on and to discuss. In July 2001, Task-Based Language Teaching (hereinaftercalled TBLT), as a new teaching mode that appeared in China, became discussingfocus since it was considered as an effective method from primary school touniversity. In the document, it revealed that teachers were advocated to use TBLTmethod. 
According to New Curriculum Standard of English inhttp://www.51lunwen.org/businessenglish/ primary schools, thestudents' interest in learning should be cultivated and maintained by teachers whoneeded to seize the opportunity to render English classroom atmosphere, to mobilizeenthusiasm of the students, to change their negative attitudes, to prepare sufficientstudy materials and to careflilly plan the lessons. Attention was paid much to"students-centered" so as to establish a new type of harmonious relationship betweenteachers and students. Teachers should stress emotional communication with thestudents, students' interest cultivation and diverse forms of English teachingarrangement, such as intra- curricular or extra-curricular activities. In brief, fromtheory to practice, TBLT represents the newest research results in the sphere offoreign language teaching and learning, advocating the latest perspectives ofeducation mode that panders to the needs of the development of times and thetransformation of foreign language teaching and learning.Some theoretical study and practical exploration will be carried out in thisthesis in order to enhance the students' speaking competence, interest in English,learning motivation and attitude, as well as to construct a harmonious environment.This is the purpose to carry out this survey.
 
Chapter 2 Literature review文献综述
 
2.1 Studies of TBLT Abroad国外的研究
TBLT, as a kind of teaching method originated from Communicative TeachingTheory, emerged in 1980s in the world which emphasized the form of "learning bydoing". Its viewpoint and philosophy of teaching was still in the framework ofCommunicative Teaching Theory. In recent 20 years, the transition of practicalpattern of classroom teaching became the new focus.The first task-based teaching practitioner abroad was a British Indian linguistnamed 
Prabhu. He presided over a communicative reform experiment that Englishwas treated as the second language from the five consecutive years in a primaryschool in southern India, Bagalore. Prabhu personally guided the teaching process.The prominent characteristic of the experiment aimed to emphasize “learning bydoing" and the whole teaching procedure was presented by tasks. He hold the ideathat learners' construction of grammar is an unconscious process which could makethe learners truly absorbed in its significance by creating a condition in order toeffectively promote teaching. In 1982, he published a Bagalore lab report and putforward Task-Based Language Teaching Approach in 1983 which raised publicattention around the world. With the development of research, TBLT in the 1990sgradually matured in theory. In addition, outstanding contributions have been madeby some other representative figures like Nunan,Willis, Skehan and Breen, etc.
Scholars and researchers from different countries make researches on TBLTfrom different perspectives. They have different understanding about what a task isand from what angles can TBLT be applied in foreign language teaching. Althoughsome achievements have been achieved, shortcomings and difficulties still existduring the practice. But as a whole, TBLT, a new teaching method which has yieldedits greatest effect, injects hope and vitality into China's educational enterprise.
 
Chapter 3 Relevant Theoretical Foundations........................... 28-33 
    3.1 Van Lier's Curriculum Theory........................... 28-29 
    3.2 Stephen Krashen's Input Hypothesis........................... 29-31 
    3.3 Interaction Hypothesis........................... 31-33 
Chapter 4 Application of Task Design...........................33-38 
    4.1 Basic Principles of Designing Tasks........................... 33 
    4.2 Procedures of task design ...........................33-35 
Chapter 5 Experimental Research........................... 38-47 
    5.1 Research questions ...........................38 
    5.2 Aims ...........................38 
    5.3 Participants ...........................38-39 
    5.4 Teaching Materials ...........................39 
    5.5 Instruments ...........................39 
        5.5.1 Questionnaires........................... 39 
        5.5.2 Test(Pre-test and Post-test) ...........................39 
        5.5.3 Interview........................... 39 
    5.6 The experiment procedure........................... 39-47 
        5.6.1 The First Questionnaire ...........................40 
        5.6.2 The pre-test ...........................40-41 
        5.6.3 The teaching process ...........................41-43
 
Conclusion结论
 
Although there emerged a great progress in students' attitude, interest andspeaking performance in English learning, many problems still needed to be furtherexplored because of the short duration of the experiment. Some suggestions are statedin the followings.
Firstly, TBLT method should press close to different language learners' learningability. The prerequisite to have a successful lesson is to have an adequateacquaintance of students' learning level, which is the base of task authenticity. Thisrequires teachers to make an extensive and profound investigation and research ofteaching materials. In the practice of teaching, tasks should be designed disparately inview of different learners in order to offer each student the opportunity to take part inactivities.
Secondly, each teaching link should be flexibly and efficiently organized in theprocess of implementation of tasks. In the practical teaching, many teachers requiresstudents to finish the task without thorough preparations, but are anxious to do sometask activities, which will make students bite off more than one can chew. Therefore,teachers should design different levels of small tasks, which can be taken as the formof task chains, to ensure teaching quality and quantity, even the integrity of the wholeclass.
At last, effects of each activity should be detail recorded in order to betterprovide some valuable experience for foreign language teaching. During the teachingpractice, the same teaching approach applied in different classes,may producedifferent result and response. Teaching practitioners should make bold assumptions,but carefully verify so as to ensure efficient teaching quality.
In sum, every coin has two sides. TBLT bring teachers both opportunities andchallenges, simultaneously, higher request was put forward to all them. This historic58 change will create a new generation of foreign language teachers. All the practitionerswho have to take an active attitude to confront new curriculum reform movement, toadapt to the requirement of the times, will become the protagonist of the Englishteaching through practical action. We believe that theoretical research and explorationmust provide opportunity and platform for teachers and students to grow.
 

英语硕士论文范文精选篇八

 
第一章绪论
 
1.1研究背景
在世界各地中,英语是最广泛使用的语言,它广泛应用于许多领域,如国际验证自助领取彩金,技术和通讯等,这也是中国把外语作为基础APP自助领取彩金8-18课程的原因,尤其是1979年改革开放以来越来越注重英语的学习。The significance of the English textbook evaluation was not realized by scholars ofour country until recent years. Cheng Xiaotang (2002) displays the five advantages ofEnglish textbook evaluation as follows. (1) Textbook evaluation is helpful to makeeducation managements, schools or teachers make a right decision when they choose asuitable textbook for some students. (2) Textbook evaluation is helpful to make teachersadopt materials well. (3) Textbook evaluation is helpful to make educationalmanagements and schools re-evaluate the textbook that has been selected. (4) Textbookevaluation is helpful to make textbook designer sum up advantages and disadvantages ofa certain textbook, and then develop into a better one. (5) Textbook evaluation is helpfulto make textbook designer evaluate the textbook designed by himself or herself morescientifically and objectively.
Whether the textbook satisfies the requirement of the syllabus and teachers' andstudents' need is the most important purpose of textbook evaluation. It can help teacherto know whether the textbook is the most suitable one for their students to learn, and italso helps students to understand what they are going to learn and their own learningobjectives.Cunningsworth (1995) states that English textbook evaluation can give teachersuseful, contextual, and systematic knowledge. It also can make both students andteachers are aware of important characters of textbooks. English textbook evaluation is avaluable part of teachers' training.
In the early 21st century, the Outline for Basic Education Curriculum Reform wasdesigned by the Ministry of Education which making a new interpretation of Englishcurriculum and language concept. The framework "one syllabus one textbook" has beenbroken which replaced by more and more English textbooks in our country. For examplein the junior middle school, the English textbooks Go For It which is published in 2001,Learning English and New Standard English, etc. are used in recent years.Because choosing textbooks is freedom for provinces, cities, and even schoolsauthorities, the importance of textbook evaluation reveals, especially for Englishtextbooks, which involve such a complicated knowledge and skill-training system andare expected to meet the requirements of such a large body of students from children inkindergartens to those pursuing their doctorate degrees.In Xianyang, Shaanxi province, all of the junior middle schools are using LearningEnglish as the English textbook, which is published by Hebei Education press and DCCanada International Communicative Center. Such a large number of students are usingthis textbook, but the report of its evaluation is not read. Therefore, it is necessary tomake a comprehensive evaluation of this English textbook and examine the internal andexternal values of this textbook.
 
1.2Objectives of the Research研究目标
The research focuses on the internal and external evaluation on the textbook LearningEnglish which is published by Hebei Education Press and DC Canada InternationalCommunication Center. It has been used in Xianyang Shaanxi province for more than sixyears.The internal evaluation is made under the guidance of the New Curriculum Standardpromulgated by the Ministry of Education, with the aim to examine the languageknowledge, language skills, cultural awareness, learning strategies and affective attitudesinvolved in the textbook.
The external evaluating data are collected through a questionnaire survey from someteachers and students, who are the important participants in process of teaching andlearning this textbook.The research questions should involve the following questions: (1) Are the designand organization of this textbook suitable for teacher and learners? (2)Is the languagecontent appropriate for students? (3)Are topics diverse and attractive enough for students?(4) Are the four English skills trainings effective? (5) Do the procedures of learning makeboth teachers and students comfortable to meet the requirement of the textbook? (6)What are the strengths and weakness of this textbook? Is it possible for some suggestionsto be made on the textbook?
 
第二章文献回顾
 
对英语教科书评价的历史可以回到20世纪60年代。在那个时候,英语音频语言教学方法刚刚出现,对教学课程和教材的评价是后来的研究。在20世纪80年代,许多在国内和海外学者开始越来越重视英语教材评价。
 
2.1Roles of English Textbook英语教材的角色
Textbook plays a significant role in most language education programs. In ourcountry, English textbook supply structures and syllabus of English teaching and learning;give the basis content of the lessons, and various language practices which students cantake part in.Huntchinson (1987) believes that the role of English textbook as follows: (1)organize the teaching and learning process, (2) create a balanced outlook which reflectsthe complexity of the learning task, yet makes it manageable, (3) have a very usefulfunction in broadening the basis of teachers' training.Haycroft (1998) suggests that one of the primary advantages of using Englishtextbook is that they are psychologically essential for students since their progress andachievement can be measured concretely when people use them.
Sheldon (1988) points out that students often have expectations about using anEnglish textbook in their particular language classroom and program. He believes thatpublished materials have more credibility than teacher-generated or "in-house" materials.Sheldon suggests that textbook not only represent the visible heart of any Englishlanguage teaching program but also offer considerable advantages for both students andteachers when they are being used in the English as a foreign language classroom.
 
Chapter Three Research Method............................ 18-22 
    3.1 Textbook Evaluated in the Research............................ 18-19 
    3.2 Paricipants ............................19 
    3.3 Designs for the Evaluation............................ 19 
        3.3.1 Internal Evaluation ............................19 
        3.3.2 External Evaluation............................ 19 
    3.4 Criteria Used in the Evaluation ............................19-20 
    3.5 Research Instruments............................ 20-21 
    3.6 Research Procedure............................ 21-22 
Chapter 4 Results and Discussion ............................22-31 
    4.1 Internal Evaluation on Language Knowledge............................ 22-26 
        4.1.1 Topic ............................22-23 
        4.1.2 Vocabulary............................ 23 
        4.1.3 Grammar ............................23-26 
    4.2 Language Skills of the Textbook............................ 26-27 
    4.3 Cultural Awareness of the Textbook............................ 27-29 
    4.4 Learning Strategies of the Textbook............................ 29-30 
    4.5  Affective Attitudes of the Textbook............................ 30-31 
Chapter 5 Results and Discussion ............................39 
    5.1 General Impression,Aims and Language............................31-33 
    5.2 Language Knowledge Evaluated ............................ 33-35 
    5.3 Language Skills Evaluated ............................ 35-38 
5.4 Exercise Design Evaluated ............................38-39
 
Conclusion结论
 
This chapter consists of three sections: summary, implication and limitation,, andsuggestions. First, the summary presents an overall of all parts of the research. Second,the conclusion presents the study's findings which include the strength and weakness ofthe textbook. Third, the implication and limitation of this research and finally, it endswith suggestions for future research.
The purpose of this research is to evaluate the appropriateness of the textbookLearning English for junior middle schools. A survey questionnaire was used in thisresearch to elicit perspectives of 88 students and 28 teachers in junior middle schoolabout the textbook in question. The questionnaire consisted of 40 items grouped under 9main categories: general impression, learning strategies, affective attitude, design, topiccontents, language components, language skills, cultural awareness, exercise.The data were subjected to analysis through descriptive statistics. Three differenttypes of computations were done: a per-item analysis, a category analysis, and anindependent samples t-test to clarify the equality and variance between the two groups ofthe participants (students and teachers).
 
英语硕士论文范文精选篇九
 
1. 简介
 
1.1研究内容
为了提高基础APP自助领取彩金8-18中英语教学的现状,APP自助领取彩金8-18部修改和更新了英语课程标准在2011年,根据2001年的版本。2011年版英语学习不仅要帮助学生掌握更多的语言知识,更要更好的语言技巧,but it should also widen the learners’ international vision,enrich their life and learning experiences, enhance their ability of cross-cultural communication, andstrengthen their love for the motherland. The 2011 version still aims to cultivate the learners’ integratedlinguistic competence.Language input (listening and reading) can hardly enhance the learners’ integrated linguisticcompetence, so language output (speaking and writing) is necessary and essential as well (Chen, Wang,Cheng, 2002). English Curriculum Standards (2011) clearly states the requirements for the learners’language output, while the requirements for the learners’ writing skills at Level 5 are as follows: Theyshould be able to collect raw materials according to the writing requirements; They should be able to draftessays and letters by themselves, and also able to revise their writings with the teachers’ help; They shouldbe able to express themselves logically with the help of linking words; They should be able to describepeople and events; They should be able to write passages and instructions with the help of graphs or tables.
This study aims to find out the major problems while writing and the main causes for the problems,thus help them enhance their integrated linguistic competence effectively. The teachers and students in thejunior stage of the Affiliated Middle School of Henan Normal University are the subjects of this study.Questionnaires and interviews as well as classroom observations are done throughout this study.
 
1.2 Research Objectives and Significance研究目标和意义
In recent years, with English teaching reform has made great achievements, teachers keep acceptingnew idea in order to active classroom teaching atmosphere and improve students’ speaking and listening abilities (Shu, 2004). But in a way, students’ English writing ability was ignored. Some students’ otherEnglish skills are good, but their writing skill is poor. Even some teachers can hardly understand themodern teaching tool well. In a lesson,whether it needs them or not, the teachers often use images, sounds,and other audio-visual, but they seldom guide the students’ writing, which causes the students can say a fewsentences, but when they write, their writings are full of mistakes. Many teachers see the writing as thesubsidiary parts of speaking and reading, they use less time to guide the student’ writing in class, andarrange it for homework. They often give the subject and request, let the students complete a compositionin their spare time.After correcting, they comment briefly in class. Firstly, the students finished their writings;next ,teachers revised them. If there’s no comment, this kind of writing lesson is only “write” stage.Some teachers can’t put correctly the different requirements of writing teaching of the three grades,think that writing is to write a composition, which is one of those in the exam, and make excessive writingrequirements to the junior middle school students prematurely. During the teaching of writing, mostteachers are lack of writing teaching methods, what they consider more is the accuracy of the language andthe correctness of the format, which can’t fully mobilize students’ interest in writing, easily makes studentslose enthusiasm of English writing, and which is not conducive to cultivate students’ autonomous writingability. Therefore, students’ writing ability can’t achieve the goal of English Curriculum Standards. Theaim of the research is to find out the problems in the writing teaching. What is more, this research isexpected to give some suggestions for middle school English teaching. Last, the author hopes that thequality of the teaching of English writing in China’s junior middle schools will be promoted.
 
第二章文献回顾
 
在本章文献回顾中,简单介绍了英语写作的要求,包括英语课程标准,英语写作,基本的教学方法和原则以及英语写作教学中的意义等的基本要求。
English teaching is paid more attention to reading, while writing is relatively ignored by teachers andstudents. As a result, to a certain extent, the development of the students’ writing ability in middle schooland causes the poor writing of their study life in the future (Zhang, 2011). In order to change the currentsituation of English teaching, the Ministry of Education revised and renewed the English CurriculumStandards in 2011, based on the version of 2001, which not only emphasized on listening, speaking andreading but on writing. It is believed that it is impossible for students to master English and develop theircomprehensive ability of using English only by language input (listening and reading). Language output(speaking and writing) is also needed (Chen, Wang & Cheng, 2002). English Curriculum Standards alsotries to make the English teaching from elementary school to middle school a coordinated process. Itdivides English teaching during elementary school and middle school into 9 levels, in which therequirements and aims of the “four skills” are given descriptions. According to English CurriculumStandards one of the tasks of middle school is that “pay much more attention to improve the students’ability of thinking and expressing ideas in English and lay good foundation for their development in thefuture and whole-life study.” The aims of language skills due to English Curriculum Standards are dividedinto 9 levels, among which levels 3 to 5 are for junior middle school students.
 
Chapter Three Research Design............................... 25-29 
    3.1 Research Questions............................... 25 
    3.2 Research Subjects ...............................25 
    3.3 Research Instruments............................... 25-27 
        3.3.1 Questionnaire ...............................25-26 
        3.3.2 Interview............................... 26-27 
        3.3.3 Classroom Observation............................... 27 
    3.4 Research Procedures ...............................27-29 
Chapter Four Results and Discussion ...............................29-41 
    4.1 Students' Questionnaire............................... 29-34 
    4.2 Teachers' Questionnaire ...............................34-37 
    4.3 Interviews ...............................37-39 
    4.4 Classroom Observation ...............................39-41 
Chapter Five Conclusion ...............................41-47 
    5.1 Major Findings ...............................41-42 
    5.2 Some Suggestions ...............................42-45 
5.3 Limitations and Prospects............................... 45-47
 
结论
 
Revising writings is an important segment of improving students’ English writing level. From apsychological point of view, each normal student has certain self-monitoring ability, this ability is stronger,the greater the role of learning. Therefore, the teacher can try to let students make self assessment andevaluation of each other. In the process of self-evaluation and evaluation of each other, teachers shouldmake every student know about English writing scoring standards, to guide the students to appreciate fortheir own and others’ project. Revising compositions is the key to improve the students’ writing level. Theteacher should concentrate on the content and organization structure from the correctness of language ingrading the student’s composition. In reviewing the composition, the teacher give the incentive evaluation,and affirm their advantages of composition, and points out places of needing the improvement, let thestudents improve their writing skills in the process of revising their assignments.
Writing is students’ comprehensive ability of using language, is also one of the most vulnerable part ofthe students. Therefore, the teacher must face up to problems of the teaching English writing in juniormiddle schools, and find out the reasons and the countermeasures. Teachers should pay more attention tothe guidance of the students’ writing in order to improve the actual effect of writing teaching.
 

英语硕士论文范文精选篇十

 
第1章简介
 
1.1研究的背景
随着科学技术的迅速发展以及社会的快速发展,人们必须通过自己的学习生活。终身APP自助领取彩金8-18对生活在现代社会的人们是必要的。现在,所有的知识不能全部通过学校的老师授课,大部分要靠自己的日常生活积累来学习获得。And what the students havelearned at school is not enough to meet their needs of survival and development in the later life. Not onlythe students, but all the people alive should learn to develop and improve themselves. Only the people orthings that are best adapted to their surroundings will continue to exist. So education should run throughone’s life, not only for hunting for a job.Autonomous learning is a new demand on English teaching because of science and technologydevelopment. Meanwhile, it is essential requirements of New Curriculum Reform. In the traditionalteaching, the students are passive to receive knowledge. They just learn what the teacher teaches in class.
Without the help of a teacher, they do not know how to probe into something new and difficult themselves.Certainly, they make progress slowly. Obviously, it is necessary to change the traditional teaching. TheNew Curriculum Reform puts forward the teaching idea of “fostering learner autonomy”. What we shoulddo first is to know about the current situation of autonomous English learning of the students, then toanalyze the result and find out the factors affecting the students’ autonomous English learning, and the lastis to give some practical suggestions to the English leaning and teaching, to improve the students’ ability ofautonomous English learning.
 
1.2 The motivation and objectives of the investigation调查的动机和目标
In the 1980s, Henri Holec introduced “learner autonomy” to the field of second language pedagogy, asa conceptual tool to discuss alternatives to the traditional teaching. From then on, autonomous learning hasbeen a hot topic in the field of education. Educationists in the west advocate the development of learnerautonomy as an education goal. As an old Chinese saying goes that teaching a person how to fish is betterthan only offering him the fish. In 2001, Chinese Education Ministry promulgated Basic Education Curriculum Reform (on trail). Among those six goals, the fourth one is to change the learning method ofstudents. It advocates the students should be active to participate in learning and probing into newknowledge, not only to be a passive learner. In 2003, Normal Senior English Curriculum (on trail) waspromulgated. The new curriculum promoted “developing the students’ autonomous English learning”. PangWeiguo (2003) states that in curriculum theory, fostering learner autonomy is regarded as a new curriculumgoal, and autonomous learning as a tool to carry out the curriculum; in the field of instructional theory,autonomous learning is thought as an important teaching method for overcoming the passive state ofstudents; and in learning theory, autonomous learning is treated as a high-level learning approach where theresearchers care about how to improve the students’ grade by improving the level of the students’self-regulation, so as to help them be an effective learner (Pang, 2003). In 2007, the Junior EnglishCurriculum also states the first task in the state of basic education is to cultivate students’ interest inEnglish learning and develop the ability of autonomous learning. With every document published, moreand more attention has been paid to autonomous English learning. It is urgent and necessary to change thetraditional teaching. For a long period, the teacher-centered teaching approach has played an important rolein China. It focuses on teachers’ teaching, ignoring the students’ autonomy. In the learning and teaching,students should be the center. The English as a foreign language teaching should meet learners’ expectationand conform to the goals of cultivating creative learners to learn in the whole life.
 
Chapter 2 Literature Review文献综述
 
2.1 Brief reviews of autonomous learning自主学习的简要回顾
The term “Autonomous learning” was put forward by Holec at the earliest. He (1981: 3) defined“autonomy” as an ability to be responsible for self-learning behaviors and learning results. He stated thatlearner autonomy consists five parts, including setting objectives, defining contents, selecting methods andtechniques, monitoring the procedure and evaluating the outcome of learning. Little Wood (1999: 73)defined autonomous learning as “involving students’ capacity to use their learning independent of teachers”.His definition has no culture difference, since in any cultural context, only if owning the capacity ofautonomous learning, will they learn through their life and develop themselves all the time. Some otherscholars also gave the definition to autonomous learning. The behaviorism psychology consideredautonomous learning contains three processes: self-regulation, self-guiding and self-enforcement. While themodern experts of learning theory advocate defining it from 8 aspects: learning motivation, learningcontents, methods, time, process, results, environment and society. They think it will be regarded asautonomous learning provided the students can choose and regulate all of these eight aspects autonomously(Liao Yanru,2009). Yu Wensen (1999) thinks autonomous learning is being active to learn. Autonomy isthe basic character of autonomous learning. In the process of learning, it presents as “I need to learn”,which is based on an internal need of the students’ study. This kind of need contains two parts: one islearning interests and the other one is learning responsibility (Zhang Jun, 2010).
 
Chapter 3 Research Design ................................22-26 
    3.1 Research questions................................ 22 
    3.2 Research participants................................ 22-23 
    3.3 Research methods and procedures................................ 23-24 
        3.3.1 Questionnaire ................................23 
        3.3.2 Interview ................................23-24 
        3.3.3 Research procedures................................ 24 
    3.4 Data collection ................................24-26 
Chapter 4 Results and Discussion ................................26-42 
    4.1 The general state of autonomous ................................26-33 
    4.2 The differences of three grades................................33-35 
    4.3 The differences between the top ................................ 35-39 
    4.4 The factors affecting the students’ autonomous ................................39-42 
Chapter 5 Conclusion................................ 42-44 
    5.1 Major findings ................................42-43 
    5.2 Suggestions ................................43 
5.3 Limitations and prospects ................................43-44
 
Conclusion结论
 
Though a lot of useful information is found out through the survey, there are some limitations duringthe process of the survey.First of all, it is difficult to know about the students’ thought when they answer the questionnaire,
though it is completed under the author’s right instruction. Second, the sample of the survey is not bigenough, and the students are only from one Junior High School in towns, so they may not be the bestrepresentatives. Third, the questionnaire may not be very scientific. Maybe there are some problems on theorder of the items. At the same time, because of time limitation, the author cannot do empirical study, andjust do an investigation on the autonomous English learning. In order to get more information and improvethe present state of the students’ autonomous English learning, we should work hard and also do moreresearch in later work.
In a broader sense, education is a lifelong process. Cultivating the students’ autonomy in Englishlearning is necessary, which can help the students in their whole-person development and future life. Weshould believe that giving one’s a fish is not better than teaching them how to fish.

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